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Использование GRUB для загрузки FreeBSD

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Короткий URL: freebsd/grub

Источник: http://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-hackers/2004-May/006944.html


===================================================
########       How to Use Grub Bootloader on FreeBSD      ########
########       <Jiafu He>jiafu_he at yahoo.com, 05/18/2004   ########
This mini-howto is written as a dummy introduction on how to get, 
install, setup and use GNU/Grub bootloader on FreeBSD. If you need 
more detailed information, go read the Grub mannual at 
http://www.gnu.org/manual/grub/html_mono/grub.html
Note: UFS2 is supported starting from the verion Grub-0.94_3.
1. Obtaining Grub files:
   To use Grub on FreeBSD UFS2, you need files "stage1", "stage2" and 
   "ufs2_stage1_5". To handle other types of file systems, you need 
   other stage 1.5 files like "ffs_stage1_5", "e2fs_stage1_5", or 
   "fat_stage1_5" etc. 
   You can obtain the files from either
   i. the GNU/Grub website http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/
   ii. or FreeBSD Grub port. Grub-0.94_3 requires freebsd 5.2.1 or 
      current. To install Grub-0.94_3, do the following:
   -------------------------------
   #cd /usr/ports/sysutils/grub  /* go to the grub freebsd port dir */
   #make install clean    /* install it */
   -------------------------------
   If all goes well, the Grub files are generated in directory
   /usr/local/share/grub/i386-freebsd/ and the executable "grub" is 
   installed under /usr/local/sbin/
2. Installing Grub on UFS2 partition:
   i. Create /boot/grub/ directory (or alternatively /grub/) on your HD
      and copy files in it:
   -----------------------------------------------
   #cd /boot;mkdir grub
   #cp -Rf /usr/local/share/grub/i386-freebsd grub
   -----------------------------------------------
   Make sure at least files "stage1" and "stage2" are under /boot/grub/. To be 
   complete, the pertinent stage 1.5 file (here "ufs2_stage1_5") is also needed. 
   ii. Create Grub boot floppy. You can either
     a. using "dd" (recommended):
     ----------------------------------------------- 
     #dd if=stage1 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 count=1 /* stage1 to block #1 */ 
     1+0 records in
     1+0 records out
     #dd if=stage2 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 seek=1 /* stage2 starting from block #2 */
     153+1 records in
     153+1 records out
     #
     ----------------------------------------------- 
     b. or alternatively using Grub "setup" under FreeBSD:
     ----------------------------------------------- 
     #fdformat -f1440 /dev/fd0  /* low level format the floppy if you want to */
     #newfs -LGrubBoot -O1 /dev/fd0 /* format into UFS1 */
     #mount /dev/fd0 /mnt
     #mkdir /mnt/boot
     #cp -Rf /usr/local/share/grub/i386-freebsd /mnt/boot/grub
     #touch /mnt/boot/grub/menu.lst /* touch and edit menu.lst, see step 3 */
     #umount /mnt
     #grub
     grub> device (fd0) /dev/fd0  /* set the device map */
     grub> root (fd0)
      Filesystem type is ffs, using whole disk
     grub> find /boot/grub/stage1 /* verify whether the required files are there */
      (fd0)
     grub> setup (fd0) /* setup the floppy */
      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes
      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
      Checking if "/boot/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes
      Running "embed /boot/grub/ffs_stage1_5 (fd0)"... failed (this is not fatal) 
      Running "embed /boot/grub/ffs_stage1_5 (fd0)"... failed (this is not fatal)
      Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (fd0) /boot/grub/stage2 p /boot/grub/menu.lst "
      ... succeeded
     Done.
     ----------------------------------------------- 
3. Touch and edit "/boot/grub/menu.lst". An example is given below, assuming that
     - partition 0: Windows XP; 
     - partition 1: FreeBSD;
     - partition 2: Linux.
   -------------------------------------------
   default saved  # boot the last selection. Work together with savedefault below
   timeout 10  # timeout 10 seconds
   password --md5 $1$rEjBN0$0J06NigS.2ImTaipPOh0w/ # md5 passwd encryption: "testgrub" 
   # Boot Windows XP. You have to chainloading.
   title Windows XP Professional  # display boot title on the Grub prompt
   root (hd0,0)  # set the root device or partition
   makeactive  # set the partition active so that next time it can be automatically 
               # booted after timing-out 
   chainloader +1  # Here we have to chainload 
   savedefault  # save this selection as the default for next bootstrap 
   # Boot FreeBSD
   title FreeBSD 5.1_p16
   root (hd0,1,a)
   kernel /boot/loader  # specify the kernel or kernel loader
   makeactive
   savedefault
   # Boot Redhat Linux
   title Redhat Linux
   root (hd0,2)
   kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.4.18-14smp ro root=LABEL=/ hdc=ide-scsi
   initrd /boot/initrd-2.4.18-14smp.img
   makeactive
   savedefault
   # Install Grub on Slice 1 (the FreeBSD partition)
   title Install Grub on FreeBSD (Slice 1)
   root (hd0,1,a)
   setup (hd0)
   savedefault
   ---------------------------------------------
4. Install Grub to MBR on your hard disk (using grub native way):
   i. Boot the machine using the floppy just created;
   ii. on the Grub menu screen, you can either make use of the last menu entry 
       (see menu.lst above) or do the following:
      -----------------------------------
             :
      (Grub menu screen)
             :
      p  # password is needed since the password line is in config file.
       password: testgrub
      c  # enter command prompt
      Then you enter the command prompt:
      grub> find /boot/grub/stage1  /* find which partition has Grub files */
      (hd0,1,a)  /* it will display the found parition */
      grub> root (hd0,1,a)
       Filesystem type is ufs2, partition type 0xa5
      grub> setup (hd0)  /* install Grub in MBR */
       Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists ... yes
       Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists ... yes
       Checking if "/boot/grub/ufs2_stage1_5" exists ... yes
       Running "embed /boot/grub/ufs2_stage1_5 (hd0)"... 16 sectors embeded.
       succeeded
       Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+16 p 
       (hd0,1,a)/boot/grub/stage2 /boot/grub/menu.lst"... succeeded
      ------------------------------------
5. Finally how to generate md5-encrypted password:
   Enter any Grub command prompt:
   grub> md5crypt  /* call the md5 password encryption utility */
    password: yourDesiredPassword  /* passwd are replaced by same number of "*" */
    EncryptedPassword  /* encrypted password is returned here, put it in config file */
That is pretty much it. Enjoy!
########### End of MiniHowto: Grub on FreeBSD #############


Создание каталога grub:

mkdir /boot/grub/

Копирование файлов:

cp -Rpv /usr/local/share/grub/i386-freebsd/* /boot/grub/

Необходимо создать файл device.map:

cat /boot/grub/device.map 
(hd0) /dev/ad0

Так же необходимо создать конфигурационный файл загрузчика:

cat /boot/grub/menu.lst
default=saved
timeout=10

title FreeBSD 7.0-CURRENT-200710
root(hd1,0,a)
kernel /boot/loader 
makeactive
savedefault

Перед началом установки загрузчика в MBR, необходимо установить переменную:

sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=16

Непосредственная установка:

# grub-install --no-floppy '(hd0)'
Installation finished. No error reported.
This is the contents of the device map /boot/grub/device.map.
Check if this is correct or not. If any of the lines is incorrect,
fix it and re-run the script `grub-install'.

(hd0) /dev/ad0

Теперь перезагружаемся и проверяем:

reboot

Grub.png
И потом
Grub1.png

Для страховки можно сохранить mbr на внешний накопитель:

dd if=/dev/ad0 of=/mnt/my_mbr.img bs=512 count=1
umount /mnt
  • Загрузка ядра Freebsd через grub

Сначала было
Freebsd kernle grub.png
Потом cp /boot/kernel/kernel /kernel_f и:
Freebsd kernle grub2.png И потом "висим" :((

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