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LOGIN.CONF(5) FreeBSD File Formats Manual LOGIN.CONF(5)


[править] NAME

    login.conf -- login class capability database

[править] SYNOPSIS

    /etc/login.conf, ~/.login_conf


    login.conf contains various attributes and capabilities of login classes.
    A login class (an optional annotation against each record in the user
    account database, /etc/master.passwd) determines session accounting,
    resource limits and user environment settings.  It is used by various
    programs in the system to set up a user's login environment and to
    enforce policy, accounting and administrative restrictions.  It also pro-
    vides the means by which users are able to be authenticated to the system
    and the types of authentication available.  Attributes in addition to the
    ones described here are available with third-party packages.
    A special record "default" in the system user class capability database
    /etc/login.conf is used automatically for any non-root user without a
    valid login class in /etc/master.passwd.  A user with a uid of 0 without
    a valid login class will use the record "root" if it exists, or "default"
    if not.
    In FreeBSD, users may individually create a file called .login_conf in
    their home directory using the same format, consisting of a single entry
    with a record id of "me".  If present, this file is used by login(1) to
    set user-defined environment settings which override those specified in
    the system login capabilities database.  Only a subset of login capabili-
    ties may be overridden, typically those which do not involve authentica-
    tion, resource limits and accounting.
    Records in a class capabilities database consist of a number of colon-
    separated fields.  The first entry for each record gives one or more
    names that a record is to be known by, each separated by a '|' character.
    The first name is the most common abbreviation.  The last name given
    should be a long name that is more descriptive of the capability entry,
    and all others are synonyms.  All names but the last should be in lower
    case and contain no blanks; the last name may contain upper case charac-
    ters and blanks for readability.
    Note that since a colon (`:') is used to separate capability entries, a
    `\c' escape sequence must be used to embed a literal colon in the value
    or name of a capability.
    The default /etc/login.conf shipped with FreeBSD is an out of the box
    configuration.  Whenever changes to this, or the user's ~/.login_conf,
    file are made, the modifications will not be picked up until cap_mkdb(1)
    is used to compile the file into a database.  This database file will
    have a .db extension and is accessed through cgetent(3).  See getcap(3)
    for a more in-depth description of the format of a capability database.


    Fields within each record in the database follow the getcap(3) conven-
    tions for boolean, type string `=' and type numeric `#', although type
    numeric is deprecated in favour of the string format and either form is
    accepted for a numeric datum.  Values fall into the following categories:
    bool     If the name is present, then the boolean value is true; other-
             wise, it is false
    file     Path name to a data file
    program  Path name to an executable file
    list     A list of values (or pairs of values) separated by commas or
    path     A space or comma separated list of path names, following the
             usual csh conventions (leading tilde with and without username
             being expanded to home directories etc.)
    number   A numeric value, either decimal (default), hexadecimal (with
             leading 0x), or octal (with a leading 0).  With a numeric type,
             only one numeric value is allowed.  Numeric types may also be
             specified in string format (i.e., the capability tag being
             delimited from the value by '=' instead of '#').  Whichever
             method is used, then all records in the database must use the
             same method to allow values to be correctly overridden in inter-
             polated records.
    size     A number which expresses a size.  The default interpretation of
             a value is the number of bytes, but a suffix may specify alter-
             nate units:
                   b     explicitly selects 512-byte blocks
                   k     selects kilobytes (1024 bytes)
                   m     specifies a multiplier of 1 megabyte (1048576
                   g     specifies units of gigabytes, and
                   t     represents terabytes.
             A size value is a numeric quantity and case of the suffix is not
             significant.  Concatenated values are added together.
    time     A period of time, by default in seconds.  A prefix may specify a
             different unit:
                   y     indicates the number of 365 day years,
                   w     indicates the number of weeks,
                   d     the number of days,
                   h     the number of hours,
                   m     the number of minutes, and
                   s     the number of seconds.
             Concatenated values are added together.  For example, 2 hours
             and 40 minutes may be written either as 9600s, 160m or 2h40m.
    The usual convention to interpolate capability entries using the special
    tc=value notation may be used.


    Name               Type      Notes     Description
    coredumpsize       size                Maximum coredump size limit.
    cputime            time                CPU usage limit.
    datasize           size                Maximum data size limit.
    filesize           size                Maximum file size limit.
    maxproc            number              Maximum number of processes.
    memorylocked       size                Maximum locked in core memory size
    memoryuse          size                Maximum of core memory use size
    openfiles          number              Maximum number of open files per
    sbsize             size                Maximum permitted socketbuffer
    vmemoryuse         size                Maximum permitted total VM usage
                                           per process.
    stacksize          size                Maximum stack size limit.
    pseudoterminals    number              Maximum number of pseudo-
    swapuse            size                Maximum swap space size limit.
    These resource limit entries actually specify both the maximum and cur-
    rent limits (see getrlimit(2)).  The current (soft) limit is the one nor-
    mally used, although the user is permitted to increase the current limit
    to the maximum (hard) limit.  The maximum and current limits may be spec-
    ified individually by appending a -max or -cur to the capability name.


    Name             Type      Notes            Description
    charset          string                     Set $MM_CHARSET environment
                                                variable to the specified
    cpumask          string                     List of cpus to bind the user
                                                to. The syntax is the same as
                                                for the -l argument of
                                                cpuset(1) or the word
                                                `default'.  If set to
                                                `default' no action is taken.
    hushlogin        bool      false            Same as having a ~/.hushlogin
    ignorenologin    bool      false            Login not prevented by
    ftp-chroot       bool      false            Limit FTP access with
                                                chroot(2) to the HOME direc-
                                                tory of the user.  See
                                                ftpd(8) for details.
    label            string                     Default MAC policy; see
    lang             string                     Set $LANG environment
                                                variable to the specified
    manpath          path                       Default search path for
    nocheckmail      bool      false            Display mail status at login.
    nologin          file                       If the file exists it will be
                                                displayed and the login ses-
                                                sion will be terminated.
    path             path      /bin /usr/bin    Default search path.
    priority         number                     Initial priority (nice)
    requirehome      bool      false            Require a valid home
                                                directory to login.
    setenv           list                       A comma-separated list of
                                                environment variables and
                                                values to which they are to
                                                be set.
    shell            prog                       Session shell to execute
                                                rather than the shell speci-
                                                fied in the passwd file.  The
                                                SHELL environment variable
                                                will contain the shell speci-
                                                fied in the password file.
    term             string                     Default terminal type if not
                                                able to determine from other
    timezone         string                     Default value of $TZ
                                                environment variable.
    umask            number    022              Initial umask. Should always
                                                have a leading 0 to ensure
                                                octal interpretation.
    welcome          file      /etc/motd        File containing welcome


    Name             Type      Notes     Description
    copyright        file                File containing additional copyright
    host.allow       list                List of remote host wildcards from
                                         which users in the class may access.
    host.deny        list                List of remote host wildcards from
                                         which users in the class may not
    login_prompt     string              The login prompt given by login(1)
    login-backoff    number    3         The number of login attempts allowed
                                         before the backoff delay is inserted
                                         after each subsequent attempt.  The
                                         backoff delay is the number of tries
                                         above login-backoff multiplied by 5
    login-retries    number    10        The number of login attempts allowed
                                         before the login fails.
    passwd_format    string    md5       The encryption format that new or
                                         changed passwords will use.  Valid
                                         values include "des", "md5" and
                                         "blf".  NIS clients using a
                                         non-FreeBSD NIS server should proba-
                                         bly use "des".
    passwd_prompt    string              The password prompt presented by
    times.allow      list                List of time periods during which
                                         logins are allowed.
    times.deny       list                List of time periods during which
                                         logins are disallowed.
    ttys.allow       list                List of ttys and ttygroups which
                                         users in the class may use for
    ttys.deny        list                List of ttys and ttygroups which
                                         users in the class may not use for
    warnexpire       time                Advance notice for pending account
    warnpassword     time                Advance notice for pending password
    These fields are intended to be used by passwd(1) and other programs in
    the login authentication system.
    Capabilities that set environment variables are scanned for both `~' and
    `$' characters, which are substituted for a user's home directory and
    name respectively.  To pass these characters literally into the environ-
    ment variable, escape the character by preceding it with a backslash '\'.
    The host.allow and host.deny entries are comma separated lists used for
    checking remote access to the system, and consist of a list of hostnames
    and/or IP addresses against which remote network logins are checked.
    Items in these lists may contain wildcards in the form used by shell pro-
    grams for wildcard matching (See fnmatch(3) for details on the implemen-
    tation).  The check on hosts is made against both the remote system's
    Internet address and hostname (if available).  If both lists are empty or
    not specified, then logins from any remote host are allowed.  If
    host.allow contains one or more hosts, then only remote systems matching
    any of the items in that list are allowed to log in.  If host.deny con-
    tains one or more hosts, then a login from any matching hosts will be
    The times.allow and times.deny entries consist of a comma-separated list
    of time periods during which the users in a class are allowed to be
    logged in.  These are expressed as one or more day codes followed by a
    start and end times expressed in 24 hour format, separated by a hyphen or
    dash.  For example, MoThSa0200-1300 translates to Monday, Thursday and
    Saturday between the hours of 2 am and 1 p.m..  If both of these time
    lists are empty, users in the class are allowed access at any time.  If
    times.allow is specified, then logins are only allowed during the periods
    given.  If times.deny is specified, then logins are denied during the
    periods given, regardless of whether one of the periods specified in
    times.allow applies.
    Note that login(1) enforces only that the actual login falls within peri-
    ods allowed by these entries.  Further enforcement over the life of a
    session requires a separate daemon to monitor transitions from an allowed
    period to a non-allowed one.
    The ttys.allow and ttys.deny entries contain a comma-separated list of
    tty devices (without the /dev/ prefix) that a user in a class may use to
    access the system, and/or a list of ttygroups (See getttyent(3) and
    ttys(5) for information on ttygroups).  If neither entry exists, then the
    choice of login device used by the user is unrestricted.  If only
    ttys.allow is specified, then the user is restricted only to ttys in the
    given group or device list.  If only ttys.deny is specified, then the
    user is prevented from using the specified devices or devices in the
    group.  If both lists are given and are non-empty, the user is restricted
    to those devices allowed by ttys.allow that are not available by
    The minpasswordlen and minpasswordcase facilities for enforcing restric-
    tions on password quality, which used to be supported by login.conf, have
    been superseded by the pam_passwdqc(8) PAM module.


    The following capabilities are reserved for the purposes indicated and
    may be supported by third-party software.  They are not implemented in
    the base system.
accountedboolfalseEnable session time accounting for all users in this class.
authlistpasswdAllowed authentication styles. The first item is the default style.
auth-typelistAllowed authentication styles for the authentication type.
autodeletetimeTime after expiry when account is auto-deleted.
bootfullboolfalseEnable 'boot only if ttygroup is full' strategy when terminating sessions.
daytimetimeMaximum login time per day.
expireperiodtimeTime for expiry allocation.
graceexpiretimeGrace days for expired account.
gracetimetimeAdditional grace login time allowed.
host.accountedlistList of remote host wildcards from which login sessions will be accounted.
host.exemptlistList of remote host wildcards from which login session accounting is exempted.
idletimetimeMaximum idle time before logout.
minpasswordlennumber6The minimum length a local password may be.
mixpasswordcasebool<true/td>Whether passwd(1) will warn the user if an all lower case password is entered.
monthtimetimeMaximum login time per month.
passwordtimetime<Used by passwd(1) to set next password expiry date./td>
refreshtime<time/td>New time allowed on account refresh.
refreshperiodstrHow often account time is refreshed.
sessiontimetimeMaximum login time per session.
sessionlimitnumberMaximum number of concurrent login sessions on ttys in any group.
ttys.accountedlistList of ttys and ttygroups for which login accounting is active.
ttys.exemptlistList of ttys and ttygroups for which login accounting is exempt.
warntimetimeAdvance notice for pending out-of-time.
weektimetimeMaximum login time per week.

The ttys.accounted and ttys.exempt fields operate in a similar manner to ttys.allow and ttys.deny as explained above. Similarly with the host.accounted and host.exempt lists.

[править] SEE ALSO

cap_mkdb(1), login(1), chroot(2), getcap(3), getttyent(3), login_cap(3), login_class(3), pam(3), passwd(5), ttys(5), ftpd(8), pam_passwdqc(8)

FreeBSD 9.0 July 8, 2011 FreeBSD 9.0

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