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MYSQL(1) MySQL Database System MYSQL(1)


[править] NAME

      mysql - the MySQL command-line tool

[править] SYNOPSIS

      mysql [options] db_name


      mysql is a simple SQL shell with input line editing capabilities. It
      supports interactive and noninteractive use. When used interactively,
      query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used
      noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented in
      tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using command
      If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets,
      use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the
      server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire result set and
      buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is done by returning
      the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function in the
      client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().
      Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command
      interpreter as follows:
          shell> mysql db_name
          shell> mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password db_name
      Then type an SQL statement, end it with ";", \g, or \G and press Enter.
      Typing Control+C causes mysql to attempt to kill the current statement.
      If this cannot be done, or Control+C is typed again before the
      statement is killed, mysql exits. Previously, Control+C caused mysql to
      exit in all cases.
      You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like this:
          shell> mysql db_name < script.sql >
      On Unix, the mysql client writes a record of executed statements to a
      history file. See the section called "MYSQL HISTORY FILE".


      mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the
      command line or in the [mysql] and [client] groups of an option file.
      mysql also supports the options for processing option files described
      at Section, "Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File
      o   --help, -?
          Display a help message and exit.
      o   --auto-rehash
          Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which
          enables database, table, and column name completion. Use
          --disable-auto-rehash to disable rehashing. That causes mysql to
          start faster, but you must issue the rehash command if you want to
          use name completion.
          To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab. If the name
          is unambiguous, mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press Tab
          again to see the possible names that begin with what you have typed
          so far. Completion does not occur if there is no default database.
      o   --auto-vertical-output
          Cause result sets to be displayed vertically if they are too wide
          for the current window, and using normal tabular format otherwise.
          (This applies to statements terminated by ; or \G.) This option was
          added in MySQL 5.5.3.
      o   --batch, -B
          Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a
          new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.
          Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of
          special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see
          the description for the --raw option.
      o   --bind-address=ip_address
          On a computer having multiple network interfaces, this option can
          be used to select which interface is employed when connecting to
          the MySQL server.
          This option is supported only in the version of the mysql client
          that is supplied with MySQL Cluster. It is not available in
          standard MySQL Server 5.5 releases.
      o   --character-sets-dir=path
          The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5,
          "Character Set Configuration".
      o   --column-names
          Write column names in results.
      o   --column-type-info, -m
          Display result set metadata.
      o   --comments, -c
          Whether to preserve comments in statements sent to the server. The
          default is --skip-comments (discard comments), enable with
          --comments (preserve comments).
      o   --compress, -C
          Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
          both support compression.
      o   --database=db_name, -D db_name
          The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.
      o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]
          Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
          'd:t:o,file_name'. The default is 'd:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace'.
      o   --debug-check
          Print some debugging information when the program exits.
      o   --debug-info, -T
          Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
          when the program exits.
      o   --default-auth=plugin
          The client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.6,
          "Pluggable Authentication".
          This option was added in MySQL 5.5.7.
      o   --default-character-set=charset_name
          Use charset_name as the default character set for the client and
          A common issue that can occur when the operating system uses utf8
          or another multi-byte character set is that output from the mysql
          client is formatted incorrectly, due to the fact that the MySQL
          client uses the latin1 character set by default. You can usually
          fix such issues by using this option to force the client to use the
          system character set instead.
          See Section 10.5, "Character Set Configuration", for more
      o   --delimiter=str
          Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon character
      o   --disable-named-commands
          Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named commands
          only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (";").
          mysql starts with this option enabled by default. However, even
          with this option, long-format commands still work from the first
          line. See the section called "MYSQL COMMANDS".
      o   --execute=statement, -e statement
          Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like
          that produced with --batch. See Section, "Using Options on
          the Command Line", for some examples. With this option, mysql does
          not use the history file.
      o   --force, -f
          Continue even if an SQL error occurs.
      o   --host=host_name, -h host_name
          Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.
      o   --html, -H
          Produce HTML output.
      o   --ignore-spaces, -i
          Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is described
          in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see Section 5.1.6,
          "Server SQL Modes").
      o   --init-command=str
          SQL statement to execute after connecting to the server. If
          auto-reconnect is enabled, the statement is executed again after
          reconnection occurs.
      o   --line-numbers
          Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with
      o   --local-infile[={0|1}]
          Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE. With no
          value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may be given as
          --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to explicitly disable or
          enable LOCAL. Enabling LOCAL has no effect if the server does not
          also support it.
      o   --named-commands, -G
          Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are permitted,
          not just short-format commands. For example, quit and \q both are
          recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to disable named commands.
          See the section called "MYSQL COMMANDS".
      o   --no-auto-rehash, -A
          This has the same effect as -skip-auto-rehash. See the description
          for --auto-rehash.
      o   --no-beep, -b
          Do not beep when errors occur.
      o   --no-named-commands, -g
          Deprecated, use --disable-named-commands instead.
          --no-named-commands was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.
      o   --no-pager
          Deprecated form of --skip-pager. See the --pager option.
          --no-pager was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.
      o   --no-tee
          Deprecated form of --skip-tee. See the --tee option.  --no-tee is
          removed in MySQL 5.5.3.
      o   --one-database, -o
          Ignore statements except those that occur while the default
          database is the one named on the command line. This option is
          rudimentary and should be used with care. Statement filtering is
          based only on USE statements.
          Initially, mysql executes statements in the input because
          specifying a database db_name on the command line is equivalent to
          inserting USE db_name at the beginning of the input. Then, for each
          USE statement encountered, mysql accepts or rejects following
          statements depending on whether the database named is the one on
          the command line. The content of the statements is immaterial.
          Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of statements:
              DELETE FROM db2.t2;
              USE db2;
              DROP TABLE db1.t1;
              CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
              USE db1;
              INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
              CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);
          If the command line is mysql --force --one-database db1, mysql
          handles the input as follows:
          o   The DELETE statement is executed because the default database
              is db1, even though the statement names a table in a different
          o   The DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements are not executed
              because the default database is not db1, even though the
              statements name a table in db1.
          o   The INSERT and CREATE TABLE statements are executed because the
              default database is db1, even though the CREATE TABLE statement
              names a table in a different database.
      o   --pager[=command]
          Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is
          omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment
          variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so
          forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive mode.
          To disable paging, use --skip-pager.  the section called "MYSQL
          COMMANDS", discusses output paging further.
      o   --password[=password], -p[password]
          The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
          short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
          and the password. If you omit the password value following the
          --password or -p option on the command line, mysql prompts for one.
          Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
          insecure. See Section, "End-User Guidelines for Password
          Security". You can use an option file to avoid giving the password
          on the command line.
      o   --pipe, -W
          On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option
          applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.
      o   --plugin-dir=path
          The directory in which to look for plugins. It may be necessary to
          specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify
          an authentication plugin but mysql does not find it. See
          Section 6.3.6, "Pluggable Authentication".
          This option was added in MySQL 5.5.7.
      o   --port=port_num, -P port_num
          The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.
      o   --prompt=format_str
          Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The
          special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in the
          section called "MYSQL COMMANDS".
      o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}
          The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
          useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a
          protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the
          permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, "Connecting to the MySQL
      o   --quick, -q
          Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received.
          This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With this
          option, mysql does not use the history file.
      o   --raw, -r
          For tabular output, the "boxing" around columns enables one column
          value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular output (such
          as is produced in batch mode or when the --batch or --silent option
          is given), special characters are escaped in the output so they can
          be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and backslash are written
          as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables this character
          The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular output
          and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:
              % mysql
              mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
              | CHAR(92) |
              | \        |
              % mysql -s
              mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
              % mysql -s -r
              mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
      o   --reconnect
          If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to
          reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the
          connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use
      o   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U
          Permit only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify which
          rows to modify by using key values. If you have set this option in
          an option file, you can override it by using --safe-updates on the
          command line. See the section called "MYSQL TIPS", for more
          information about this option.
      o   --secure-auth
          Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1.1) format. This
          prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password
      o   --show-warnings
          Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there are any.
          This option applies to interactive and batch mode.
      o   --sigint-ignore
          Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C).
      o   --silent, -s
          Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given multiple
          times to produce less and less output.
          This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of
          special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see
          the description for the --raw option.
      o   --skip-column-names, -N
          Do not write column names in results.
      o   --skip-line-numbers, -L
          Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to
          compare result files that include error messages.
      o   --socket=path, -S path
          For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
          Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.
      o   --ssl*
          Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
          server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
          certificates. See Section, "SSL Command Options".
      o   --table, -t
          Display output in table format. This is the default for interactive
          use, but can be used to produce table output in batch mode.
      o   --tee=file_name
          Append a copy of output to the given file. This option works only
          in interactive mode.  the section called "MYSQL COMMANDS",
          discusses tee files further.
      o   --unbuffered, -n
          Flush the buffer after each query.
      o   --user=user_name, -u user_name
          The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.
      o   --verbose, -v
          Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. This
          option can be given multiple times to produce more and more output.
          (For example, -v -v -v produces table output format even in batch
      o   --version, -V
          Display version information and exit.
      o   --vertical, -E
          Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value).
          Without this option, you can specify vertical output for individual
          statements by terminating them with \G.
      o   --wait, -w
          If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of
      o   --xml, -X
          Produce XML output.
              <field name="column_name">NULL</field>
          The output when --xml is used with mysql matches that of mysqldump
          --xml. See mysqldump(1) for details.
          The XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown here:
              shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
              <?xml version="1.0"?>
              <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="">
              <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
              <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
              <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
              <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
              <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
              <field name="Value">i686</field>
              <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
              <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>
          (See Bug #25946.)
      You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value. The
      --set-variable format is deprecated and was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.
      o   connect_timeout
          The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default value is
      o   max_allowed_packet
          The maximum packet length to send to or receive from the server.
          (Default value is 16MB.)
      o   max_join_size
          The automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates.
          (Default value is 1,000,000.)
      o   net_buffer_length
          The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default value
          is 16KB.)
      o   select_limit
          The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using
          --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000.)


      mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be
      executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself interprets.
      For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the mysql> prompt:
          mysql> help
          List of all MySQL commands:
          Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';'
          ?         (\?) Synonym for `help'.
          clear     (\c) Clear command.
          connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
          delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
          edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
          ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
          exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
          go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
          help      (\h) Display this help.
          nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
          notee     (\t) Don't write into outfile.
          pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
          print     (\p) Print current command.
          prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
          quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
          rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
          source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
          status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
          system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
          tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
          use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
          charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
                         binlog with multi-byte charsets.
          warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
          nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.
          For server side help, type 'help contents'
      Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not case
      sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by an
      optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.
      The use of short-form commands within multi-line /* ... */ comments is
      not supported.
      o   help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]
          Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.
          If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
          search string to access server-side help from the contents of the
          MySQL Reference Manual. For more information, see the section
          called "MYSQL SERVER-SIDE HELP".
      o   charset charset_name, \C charset_name
          Change the default character set and issue a SET NAMES statement.
          This enables the character set to remain synchronized on the client
          and server if mysql is run with auto-reconnect enabled (which is
          not recommended), because the specified character set is used for
      o   clear, \c
          Clear the current input. Use this if you change your mind about
          executing the statement that you are entering.
      o   connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]
          Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name
          arguments may be given to specify the default database or the host
          where the server is running. If omitted, the current values are
      o   delimiter str, \d str
          Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator between
          SQL statements. The default is the semicolon character (";").
          The delimiter string can be specified as an unquoted or quoted
          argument on the delimiter command line. Quoting can be done with
          either single quote ('), double quote ("), or backtick (`)
          characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either quote
          the string with a different quote character or escape the quote
          with a backslash ("\") character. Backslash should be avoided
          outside of quoted strings because it is the escape character for
          MySQL. For an unquoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the
          first space or end of line. For a quoted argument, the delimiter is
          read up to the matching quote on the line.
          mysql interprets instances of the delimiter string as a statement
          delimiter anywhere it occurs, except within quoted strings. Be
          careful about defining a delimiter that might occur within other
          words. For example, if you define the delimiter as X, you will be
          unable to use the word INDEX in statements.  mysql interprets this
          as INDE followed by the delimiter X.
          When the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to something other
          than the default of ";", instances of that character are sent to
          the server without interpretation. However, the server itself still
          interprets ";" as a statement delimiter and processes statements
          accordingly. This behavior on the server side comes into play for
          multiple-statement execution (see Section 22.9.13, "C API Support
          for Multiple Statement Execution"), and for parsing the body of
          stored procedures and functions, triggers, and events (see
          Section 19.1, "Defining Stored Programs").
      o   edit, \e
          Edit the current input statement.  mysql checks the values of the
          EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to determine which editor
          to use. The default editor is vi if neither variable is set.
          The edit command works only in Unix.
      o   ego, \G
          Send the current statement to the server to be executed and display
          the result using vertical format.
      o   exit, \q
          Exit mysql.
      o   go, \g
          Send the current statement to the server to be executed.
      o   nopager, \n
          Disable output paging. See the description for pager.
          The nopager command works only in Unix.
      o   notee, \t
          Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for
      o   nowarning, \w
          Enable display of warnings after each statement.
      o   pager [command], \P [command]
          Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke
          mysql, it is possible to browse or search query results in
          interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or any
          other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
          mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets
          the pager to that. Pager functionality works only in interactive
          Output paging can be enabled interactively with the pager command
          and disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional argument;
          if given, the paging program is set to that. With no argument, the
          pager is set to the pager that was set on the command line, or
          stdout if no pager was specified.
          Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen()
          function, which does not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee
          option can be used instead to save query output, although it is not
          as convenient as pager for browsing output in some situations.
      o   print, \p
          Print the current input statement without executing it.
      o   prompt [str], \R [str]
          Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special
          character sequences that can be used in the prompt are described
          later in this section.
          If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets
          the prompt to the default of mysql>.
      o   quit, \q
          Exit mysql.
      o   rehash, \#
          Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and
          column name completion while you are entering statements. (See the
          description for the --auto-rehash option.)
      o   source file_name, \. file_name
          Read the named file and executes the statements contained therein.
          On Windows, you can specify path name separators as / or \\.
      o   status, \s
          Provide status information about the connection and the server you
          are using. If you are running in --safe-updates mode, status also
          prints the values for the mysql variables that affect your queries.
      o   system command, \! command
          Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.
          The system command works only in Unix.
      o   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]
          By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can log
          statements and their output. All the data displayed on the screen
          is appended into a given file. This can be very useful for
          debugging purposes also.  mysql flushes results to the file after
          each statement, just before it prints its next prompt. Tee
          functionality works only in interactive mode.
          You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command.
          Without a parameter, the previous file is used. The tee file can be
          disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again re-enables
      o   use db_name, \u db_name
          Use db_name as the default database.
      o   warnings, \W
          Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are any).
      Here are a few tips about the pager command:
      o   You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the
              mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt
          You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use
          as your pager:
              mysql> pager less -n -i -S
      o   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very
          useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide
          result set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option to
          less can make the result set much more readable because you can
          scroll it horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys.
          You can also use -S interactively within less to switch the
          horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more information, read the
          less manual page:
              shell> man less
      o   The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it to exit if
          output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no scrolling is
              mysql> pager less -n -i -S -F -X
      o   You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query
              mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
                        | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S
          In this example, the command would send query results to two files
          in two different directories on two different file systems mounted
          on /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen using
      You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file
      enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results
      using the less program and still have everything appended into a file
      the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager
      command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee
      works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee
      also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix
      tee used with pager does not log quite that much. Additionally, tee
      file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within mysql.
      This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not
      The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string
      for defining the prompt can contain the following special sequences.
      |Option | Description                |
      |\c     | A counter that increments  |
      |       | for each statement you     |
      |       | issue                      |
      |\D     | The full current date      |
      |\d     | The default database       |
      |\h     | The server host            |
      |\l     | The current delimiter      |
      |\m     | Minutes of the current     |
      |       | time                       |
      |\n     | A newline character        |
      |\O     | The current month in       |
      |       | three-letter format (Jan,  |
      |       | Feb, ...)                  |
      |\o     | The current month in       |
      |       | numeric format             |
      |\P     | am/pm                      |
      |\p     | The current TCP/IP port or |
      |       | socket file                |
      |\R     | The current time, in       |
      |       | 24-hour military time      |
      |       | (0-23)                     |
      |\r     | The current time, standard |
      |       | 12-hour time (1-12)        |
      |\S     | Semicolon                  |
      |\s     | Seconds of the current     |
      |       | time                       |
      |\t     | A tab character            |
      |\U     |                            |
      |       |        Your full           |
      |       |        user_name@host_name |
      |       |        account name        |
      |\u     | Your user name             |
      |\v     | The server version         |
      |\w     | The current day of the     |
      |       | week in three-letter       |
      |       | format (Mon, Tue, ...)     |
      |\Y     | The current year, four     |
      |       | digits                     |
      |\y     | The current year, two      |
      |       | digits                     |
      |\_     | A space                    |
      |\      | A space (a space follows   |
      |       | the backslash)             |
      |\'     | Single quote               |
      |\"     | Double quote               |
      |\\     | A literal "\" backslash    |
      |       | character                  |
      |\x     |                            |
      |       |        x, for any "x" not  |
      |       |        listed above        |
      You can set the prompt in several ways:
      o   Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1 environment
          variable to a prompt string. For example:
              shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
      o   Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on the
          command line to mysql. For example:
              shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
              (user@host) [database]>
      o   Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql]
          group of any MySQL option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf
          file in your home directory. For example:
              prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_
          In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you set
          the prompt using the prompt option in an option file, it is
          advisable to double the backslashes when using the special prompt
          options. There is some overlap in the set of permissible prompt
          options and the set of special escape sequences that are recognized
          in option files. (The rules for escape sequences in option files
          are listed in Section, "Using Option Files".) The overlap
          may cause you problems if you use single backslashes. For example,
          \s is interpreted as a space rather than as the current seconds
          value. The following example shows how to define a prompt within an
          option file to include the current time in HH:MM:SS> format:
              prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "
      o   Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt
          interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:
              mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
              PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
              (user@host) [database]>
              (user@host) [database]> prompt
              Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>


      On Unix, the mysql client writes a record of executed statements to a
      history file. By default, this file is named .mysql_history and is
      created in your home directory. To specify a different file, set the
      value of the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable.
      The .mysql_history should be protected with a restrictive access mode
      because sensitive information might be written to it, such as the text
      of SQL statements that contain passwords. See Section, "End-
      User Guidelines for Password Security".
      It is possible to suppress logging of statements to the history file by
      using the --batch or --execute option.
      If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove
      .mysql_history if it exists, and then use either of the following
      o   Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE variable to /dev/null. To cause this setting
          to take effect each time you log in, put the setting in one of your
          shell's startup files.
      o   Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null:
              shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history
          You need do this only once.


          mysql> help search_string
      If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
      search string to access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL
      Reference Manual. The proper operation of this command requires that
      the help tables in the mysql database be initialized with help topic
      information (see Section 5.1.9, "Server-Side Help").
      If there is no match for the search string, the search fails:
          mysql> help me
          Nothing found
          Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics
      Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:
          mysql> help contents
          You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
          For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the
          following categories:
             Account Management
             Data Definition
             Data Manipulation
             Data Types
             Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
             Geographic Features
             Language Structure
             Storage Engines
             Stored Routines
             Table Maintenance
      If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of
      matching topics:
          mysql> help logs
          Many help items for your request exist.
          To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
          where <item> is one of the following topics:
             SHOW BINARY LOGS
             SHOW ENGINE
             SHOW LOGS
      Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that topic:
          mysql> help show binary logs
          Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS'
          Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
          part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how
          to determine which logs can be purged.
          mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
          | Log_name      | File_size |
          | binlog.000015 |    724935 |
          | binlog.000016 |    733481 |


      The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:
          shell> mysql db_name
      However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and
      then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a
      text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute.
      Then invoke mysql as shown here:
          shell> mysql db_name < text_file
      If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the
      file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command
          shell> mysql < text_file
      If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file
      using the source command or \.  command:
          mysql> source file_name
          mysql> \. file_name
      Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to
      the user. For this you can insert statements like this:
          SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';
      The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.
      You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which causes each
      statement to be displayed before the result that it produces.
      mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM) characters at the beginning
      of input files. Previously, it read them and sent them to the server,
      resulting in a syntax error. Presence of a BOM does not cause mysql to
      change its default character set. To do that, invoke mysql with an
      option such as --default-character-set=utf8.
      For more information about batch mode, see Section 3.5, "Using mysql in
      Batch Mode".

[править] MYSQL TIPS

      This section describes some techniques that can help you use mysql more
  Displaying Query Results Vertically
      Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically,
      instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be
      displayed vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a
      semicolon. For example, longer text values that include newlines often
      are much easier to read with vertical output:
          mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
          *************************** 1. row ***************************
            msg_nro: 3068
               date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
          time_zone: +0200
          mail_from: Monty
            mail_to: "Thimble Smith" <>
                sbj: UTF-8
                txt: >>>>> "Thimble" == Thimble Smith writes:
          Thimble> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
          Thimble> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
          Thimble> TODO list and see what happens.
          Yes, please do that.
               file: inbox-jani-1
               hash: 190402944
          1 row in set (0.09 sec)
  Using the --safe-updates Option
      For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or
      --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). It is helpful for cases
      when you might have issued a DELETE FROM tbl_name statement but
      forgotten the WHERE clause. Normally, such a statement deletes all rows
      from the table. With --safe-updates, you can delete rows only by
      specifying the key values that identify them. This helps prevent
      When you use the --safe-updates option, mysql issues the following
      statement when it connects to the MySQL server:
          SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, sql_max_join_size=1000000;
      See Section 5.1.3, "Server System Variables".
      The SET statement has the following effects:
      o   You are not permitted to execute an UPDATE or DELETE statement
          unless you specify a key constraint in the WHERE clause or provide
          a LIMIT clause (or both). For example:
              UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
              UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;
      o   The server limits all large SELECT results to 1,000 rows unless the
          statement includes a LIMIT clause.
      o   The server aborts multiple-table SELECT statements that probably
          need to examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.
      To specify limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can override
      the defaults by using the --select_limit and --max_join_size options:
          shell> mysql --safe-updates --select_limit=500 --max_join_size=10000
  Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect
      If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a
      statement, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to
      the server and send the statement again. However, even if mysql
      succeeds in reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all your
      previous session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the
      autocommit mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any
      current transaction rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for you,
      as in the following example where the server was shut down and
      restarted between the first and second statements without you knowing
          mysql> SET @a=1;
          Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
          mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
          ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
          No connection. Trying to reconnect...
          Connection id:    1
          Current database: test
          Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
          mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
          | a    |
          | NULL |
          1 row in set (0.05 sec)
      The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the
      reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql
      terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start
      the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.
      For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on state
      information when a reconnection occurs, see Section 22.9.12,
      "Controlling Automatic Reconnection Behavior".

[править] COPYRIGHT

      Copyright (C) 1997, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights
      This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
      modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
      published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.
      This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
      but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
      General Public License for more details.
      You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
      with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
      51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see

[править] SEE ALSO

      For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
      may already be installed locally and which is also available online at

[править] AUTHOR

      Oracle Corporation (

MySQL 5.5 05/14/2012 MYSQL(1)


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