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RC(8) FreeBSD System Manager's Manual RC(8)


[править] NAME

    rc -- command scripts for auto-reboot and daemon startup

[править] SYNOPSIS



    The rc utility is the command script which controls the automatic boot
    process after being called by init(8).  The rc.local script contains com-
    mands which are pertinent only to a specific site.  Typically, the
    /usr/local/etc/rc.d/ mechanism is used instead of rc.local these days but
    if you want to use rc.local, it is still supported.  In this case, it
    should source /etc/rc.conf and contain additional custom startup code for
    your system.  The best way to handle rc.local, however, is to separate it
    out into rc.d/ style scripts and place them under /usr/local/etc/rc.d/.
    The rc.conf file contains the global system configuration information
    referenced by the startup scripts, while rc.conf.local contains the local
    system configuration.  See rc.conf(5) for more information.
    The rc.d/ directories contain scripts which will be automatically exe-
    cuted at boot time and shutdown time.
  Operation of rc
    1.   If autobooting, set autoboot=yes and enable a flag (rc_fast=yes),
         which prevents the rc.d/ scripts from performing the check for
         already running processes (thus speeding up the boot process).  This
         rc_fast=yes speedup will not occur when rc is started up after exit-
         ing the single-user shell.
    2.   Determine whether the system is booting diskless, and if so run the
         /etc/rc.initdiskless script.
    3.   Source /etc/rc.subr to load various rc.subr(8) shell functions to
    4.   Load the configuration files.
    5.   Determine if booting in a jail, and add ``nojail to the list of
         KEYWORDS to skip in rcorder(8).
    6.   Invoke rcorder(8) to order the files in /etc/rc.d/ that do not have
         a ``nostart KEYWORD (refer to rcorder(8)'s -s flag).
    7.   Call each script in turn using run_rc_script() (from rc.subr(8)),
         which sets $1 to ``start, and sources the script in a subshell.
         If the script has a .sh suffix then it is sourced directly into the
         current shell.  Stop processing when the script that is the value of
         the $early_late_divider has been run.
    8.   Re-run rcorder(8), this time including the scripts in the
         $local_startup directories.  Ignore everything up to the
         $early_late_divider, then start executing the scripts as described
  Operation of rc.shutdown
    1.   Source /etc/rc.subr to load various rc.subr(8) shell functions to
    2.   Load the configuration files.
    3.   Invoke rcorder(8) to order the files in /etc/rc.d/ and the
         $local_startup directories that have a ``shutdown KEYWORD (refer
         to rcorder(8)'s -k flag), reverse that order, and assign the result
         to a variable.
    4.   Call each script in turn using run_rc_script() (from rc.subr(8)),
         which sets $1 to ``stop, and sources the script in a subshell.  If
         the script has a .sh suffix then it is sourced directly into the
         current shell.
  Contents of rc.d/
    rc.d/ is located in /etc/rc.d/.  The following file naming conventions
    are currently used in rc.d/:
          ALLUPPERCASE  Scripts that are ``placeholders to ensure that cer-
                        tain operations are performed before others.  In
                        order of startup, these are:
                        NETWORKING  Ensure basic network services are run-
                                    ning, including general network configu-
                        SERVERS     Ensure basic services exist for services
                                    that start early (such as named), because
                                    they are required by DAEMON below.
                        DAEMON      Check-point before all general purpose
                                    daemons such as lpd and ntpd.
                        LOGIN       Check-point before user login services
                                    (inetd and sshd), as well as services
                                    which might run commands as users (cron
                                    and sendmail).
        Scripts that are to be sourced into the current shell
                        rather than a subshell have a .sh suffix.  Extreme
                        care must be taken in using this, as the startup
                        sequence will terminate if the script does.
          bar           Scripts that are sourced in a subshell.  The boot
                        does not stop if such a script terminates with a non-
                        zero status, but a script can stop the boot if neces-
                        sary by invoking the stop_boot() function (from
                        rc.subr(8) ).
    Each script should contain rcorder(8) keywords, especially an appropriate
    ``PROVIDE entry, and if necessary ``REQUIRE and ``BEFORE keywords.
    Each script is expected to support at least the following arguments,
    which are automatically supported if it uses the run_rc_command() func-
          start    Start the service.  This should check that the service is
                   to be started as specified by rc.conf(5).  Also checks if
                   the service is already running and refuses to start if it
                   is.  This latter check is not performed by standard
                   FreeBSD scripts if the system is starting directly to
                   multi-user mode, to speed up the boot process.  If
                   forcestart is given, ignore the rc.conf(5) check and start
          stop     If the service is to be started as specified by
                   rc.conf(5), stop the service.  This should check that the
                   service is running and complain if it is not.  If
                   forcestop is given, ignore the rc.conf(5) check and
                   attempt to stop.
          restart  Perform a stop then a start.
          status   If the script starts a process (rather than performing a
                   one-off operation), show the status of the process.  Oth-
                   erwise it is not necessary to support this argument.
                   Defaults to displaying the process ID of the program (if
          poll     If the script starts a process (rather than performing a
                   one-off operation), wait for the command to exit.  Other-
                   wise it is not necessary to support this argument.
          rcvar    Display which rc.conf(5) variables are used to control the
                   startup of the service (if any).
    If a script must implement additional commands it can list them in the
    extra_commands variable, and define their actions in a variable con-
    structed from the command name (see the EXAMPLES section).
    The following key points apply to old-style scripts in
    o   Scripts are only executed if their basename(1) matches the shell
        globbing pattern *.sh, and they are executable.  Any other files or
        directories present within the directory are silently ignored.
    o   When a script is executed at boot time, it is passed the string
        ``start as its first and only argument.  At shutdown time, it is
        passed the string ``stop as its first and only argument.  All rc.d/
        scripts are expected to handle these arguments appropriately.  If no
        action needs to be taken at a given time (either boot time or shut-
        down time), the script should exit successfully and without producing
        an error message.
    o   The scripts within each directory are executed in lexicographical
        order.  If a specific order is required, numbers may be used as a
        prefix to the existing filenames, so for example would be
        executed before; without the numeric prefixes the opposite
        would be true.
    o   The output from each script is traditionally a space character, fol-
        lowed by the name of the software package being started or shut down,
        without a trailing newline character (see the EXAMPLES section).


    When an automatic reboot is in progress, rc is invoked with the argument
    autoboot.  One of the scripts run from /etc/rc.d/ is /etc/rc.d/fsck.
    This script runs fsck(8) with option -p and -F to ``preen all the disks
    of minor inconsistencies resulting from the last system shutdown.  If
    this fails, then checks/repairs of serious inconsistencies caused by
    hardware or software failure will be performed in the background at the
    end of the booting process.  If autoboot is not set, when going from sin-
    gle-user to multi-user mode for example, the script does not do anything.
    The /etc/rc.d/local script can execute scripts from multiple rc.d/ direc-
    tories.  The default location includes /usr/local/etc/rc.d/, but these
    may be overridden with the local_startup rc.conf(5) variable.
    The /etc/rc.d/serial script is used to set any special configurations for
    serial devices.
    The rc.firewall script is used to configure rules for the kernel based
    firewall service.  It has several possible options:
          open      will allow anyone in
          client    will try to protect just this machine
          simple    will try to protect a whole network
          closed    totally disables IP services except via lo0 interface
          UNKNOWN   disables the loading of firewall rules
          filename  will load the rules in the given filename (full path
    The /etc/rc.d/atm* scripts are used to configure ATM network interfaces.
    The interfaces are configured in three passes.  The first pass performs
    the initial interface configuration.  The second pass completes the
    interface configuration and defines PVCs and permanent ATMARP entries.
    The third pass starts any ATM daemons.
    Most daemons, including network related daemons, have their own script in
    /etc/rc.d/, which can be used to start, stop, and check the status of the
    Any architecture specific scripts, such as /etc/rc.d/apm for example,
    specifically check that they are on that architecture before starting the
    Following tradition, all startup files reside in /etc.

[править] FILES

    /var/run/dmesg.boot               dmesg(8) results soon after the rc
                                      process begins.  Useful when dmesg(8)
                                      buffer in the kernel no longer has this

[править] EXAMPLES

    The following is a minimal rc.d/ style script.  Most scripts require lit-
    tle more than the following.
          # PROVIDE: foo
          # REQUIRE: bar_service_required_to_precede_foo
          . /etc/rc.subr
          load_rc_config $name
          run_rc_command "$1"
    Certain scripts may want to provide enhanced functionality.  The user may
    access this functionality through additional commands.  The script may
    list and define as many commands at it needs.
          # PROVIDE: foo
          # REQUIRE: bar_service_required_to_precede_foo
          # BEFORE:  baz_service_requiring_foo_to_precede_it
          . /etc/rc.subr
          extra_commands="nop hello"
          hello_cmd="echo Hello World."
                  echo "I do nothing."
          load_rc_config $name
          run_rc_command "$1"
    As all processes are killed by init(8) at shutdown, the explicit kill(1)
    is unnecessary, but is often included.

[править] SEE ALSO

kill(1) • rc.conf(5) • init(8) • rcorder(8) • rc.subr(8) • reboot(8) • savecore(8)

[править] HISTORY

    The rc utility appeared in 4.0BSD.

FreeBSD 9.0 November 17, 2009 FreeBSD 9.0

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