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man/orig/logrotate

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logrotate • man/logrotate • man/orig/logrotate • Пример использования logrotate


LOGROTATE(8) System Administrator's Manual LOGROTATE(8)

Содержание

[править] NAME

      logrotate - rotates, compresses, and mails system logs

[править] SYNOPSIS

      logrotate [-dv] [-f|--force] [-s|--state file] config_file ..

[править] DESCRIPTION

      logrotate  is  designed to ease administration of systems that generate
      large numbers of log files.  It allows automatic rotation, compression,
      removal, and mailing of log files.  Each log file may be handled daily,
      weekly, monthly, or when it grows too large.
      Normally, logrotate is run as a daily cron job.  It will not  modify  a
      log  multiple  times  in  one  day unless the criterion for that log is
      based on the log's size and logrotate is being run multiple times  each
      day, or unless the -f or --force option is used.
      Any number of config files may be given on the command line. Later con-
      fig files may override the options given in earlier files, so the order
      in which the logrotate config files are listed is important.  Normally,
      a single config file which includes any other config  files  which  are
      needed  should  be  used.  See below for more information on how to use
      the include directive to accomplish this.  If a directory is  given  on
      the  command  line,  every  file  in that directory is used as a config
      file.
      If no command line arguments are given, logrotate  will  print  version
      and  copyright  information,  along with a short usage summary.  If any
      errors occur while rotating logs, logrotate  will  exit  with  non-zero
      status.


[править] OPTIONS

      -?, --help
             Prints help message.


      -d, --debug
             Turns  on  debug mode and implies -v.  In debug mode, no changes
             will be made to the logs or to the logrotate state file.


      -f, --force
             Tells logrotate to force the rotation, even if it doesn't  think
             this  is  necessary.   Sometimes this is useful after adding new
             entries to a logrotate config file, or if  old  log  files  have
             been removed by hand, as the new files will be created, and log-
             ging will continue correctly.


      -m, --mail <command>
             Tells logrotate which command to use  when  mailing  logs.  This
             command  should accept two arguments: 1) the subject of the mes-
             sage, and 2) the recipient. The command must then read a message
             on standard input and mail it to the recipient. The default mail
             command is /bin/mail -s.


      -s, --state <statefile>
             Tells logrotate to use an alternate state file.  This is  useful
             if  logrotate  is being run as a different user for various sets
             of log files.  The default state file is /var/lib/logrotate.sta-
             tus.


      --usage
             Prints a short usage message.


      -v, --verbose
             Turns on verbose mode.


[править] CONFIGURATION FILE

      logrotate  reads  everything  about the log files it should be handling
      from the series of configuration files specified on the  command  line.
      Each configuration file can set global options (local definitions over-
      ride global ones, and later  definitions  override  earlier  ones)  and
      specify  logfiles  to  rotate.  A  simple configuration file looks like
      this:
      # sample logrotate configuration file
      compress
      /var/log/messages {
          rotate 5
          weekly
          postrotate
              /usr/bin/killall -HUP syslogd
          endscript
      }
      "/var/log/httpd/access.log" /var/log/httpd/error.log {
          rotate 5
          mail www@my.org
          size 100k
          sharedscripts
          postrotate
              /usr/bin/killall -HUP httpd
          endscript
      }
      /var/log/news/* {
          monthly
          rotate 2
          olddir /var/log/news/old
          missingok
          postrotate
              kill -HUP `cat /var/run/inn.pid`
          endscript
          nocompress
      }


      The first few lines set global options; in the example, logs  are  com-
      pressed after they are rotated.  Note that comments may appear anywhere
      in the config file as long as the first non-whitespace character on the
      line is a #.
      The next section of the config files defined how to handle the log file
      /var/log/messages. The log will go through five weekly rotations before
      being  removed. After the log file has been rotated (but before the old
      version of the log has been compressed), the command /sbin/killall -HUP
      syslogd will be executed.
      The     next     section    defines    the    parameters    for    both
      /var/log/httpd/access.log  and  /var/log/httpd/error.log.    They   are
      rotated whenever it grows over 100k in size, and the old logs files are
      mailed (uncompressed) to www@my.org after going  through  5  rotations,
      rather  than being removed. The sharedscripts means that the postrotate
      script will only be run once (after the old logs have been compressed),
      not  once  for  each  log which is rotated. Note that the double quotes
      around the first filename at  the  beginning  of  this  section  allows
      logrotate  to rotate logs with spaces in the name. Normal shell quoting
      rules apply, with ', ", and \ characters supported.
      The last section defines  the  parameters  for  all  of  the  files  in
      /var/log/news.  Each  file is rotated on a monthly basis.  This is con-
      sidered a single rotation directive and if errors occur for  more  than
      one file, the log files are not compressed.
      Please  use  wildcards  with caution.  If you specify *, logrotate will
      rotate all files, including previously rotated ones.  A way around this
      is  to  use  the  olddir  directive  or  a more exact wildcard (such as
      *.log).
      Here is more information on the directives which may be included  in  a
      logrotate configuration file:


      compress
             Old  versions  of  log  files  are  compressed  with  gzip(1) by
             default. See also nocompress.


      compresscmd
             Specifies which command to  use  to  compress  log  files.   The
             default is gzip.  See also compress.


      uncompresscmd
             Specifies  which  command  to  use to uncompress log files.  The
             default is gunzip.


      compressext
             Specifies which extension to use on compressed logfiles, if com-
             pression is enabled.  The default follows that of the configured
             compression command.


      compressoptions
             Command line options may be passed to the  compression  program,
             if  one  is  in use.  The default, for gzip(1), is "-9" (maximum
             compression).


      copy   Make a copy of the log file, but don't change  the  original  at
             all.   This option can be used, for instance, to make a snapshot
             of the current log file, or when some  other  utility  needs  to
             truncate  or parse the file.  When this option is used, the cre-
             ate option will have no effect, as the old  log  file  stays  in
             place.


      copytruncate
             Truncate  the  original log file in place after creating a copy,
             instead of moving the old log file and optionally creating a new
             one.   It  can be used when some program cannot be told to close
             its logfile and thus might continue writing (appending)  to  the
             previous log file forever.  Note that there is a very small time
             slice between copying the file and truncating it, so  some  log-
             ging  data  might be lost.  When this option is used, the create
             option will have no effect, as the old log file stays in place.


      create mode owner group
             Immediately after rotation (before the postrotate script is run)
             the log file is created (with the same name as the log file just
             rotated).  mode specifies the mode for the  log  file  in  octal
             (the  same  as chmod(2)), owner specifies the user name who will
             own the log file, and group specifies the  group  the  log  file
             will  belong  to. Any of the log file attributes may be omitted,
             in which case those attributes for the new  file  will  use  the
             same values as the original log file for the omitted attributes.
             This option can be disabled using the nocreate option.


      daily  Log files are rotated every day.


      dateext
             Archive old versions of log files adding a daily extension  like
             YYYYMMDD instead of simply adding a number. The extension may be
             configured using the dateformat and dateyesterday options.


      dateformat format_string
             Specify the extension for dateext using the notation similar  to
             strftime(3)  function.  Only  %Y  %m  %d  and  %s specifiers are
             allowed.  The default value is -%Y%m%d. Note that also the char-
             acter  separating  log  name  from  the extension is part of the
             dateformat string. The system clock must be  set  past  Sep  9th
             2001  for %s to work correctly.  Note that the datestamps gener-
             ated by this format must be lexically sortable (i.e., first  the
             year,  then  the month then the day. e.g., 2001/12/01 is ok, but
             01/12/2001 is not, since 01/11/2002 would sort lower while it is
             later).  This is because when using the rotate option, logrotate
             sorts all rotated filenames to find out which logfiles are older
             and should be removed.


      dateyesterday
             Use  yesterday's  instead  of today's date to create the dateext
             extension, so that the rotated log file has a date in  its  name
             that is the same as the timestamps within it.


      delaycompress
             Postpone  compression of the previous log file to the next rota-
             tion cycle.  This only has effect when used in combination  with
             compress.   It  can  be used when some program cannot be told to
             close its logfile and thus might continue writing to the  previ-
             ous log file for some time.


      extension ext
             Log files with ext extension can keep it after the rotation.  If
             compression  is  used,  the compression extension (normally .gz)
             appears  after  ext.  For  example  you  have  a  logfile  named
             mylog.foo and want to rotate it  to  mylog.1.foo.gz  instead  of
             mylog.foo.1.gz.


      addextension ext
             Log  files  are given the final extension ext after rotation. If
             the original file already ends with ext, the  extension  is  not
             duplicated,  but merely moved to the end, i.e. both filename and
             filenameext would get rotated to filename.1ext.  If  compression
             is  used, the compression extension (normally .gz) appears after
             ext.


      ifempty
             Rotate the  log  file  even  if  it  is  empty,  overriding  the
             notifempty option (ifempty is the default).


      include file_or_directory
             Reads the file given as an argument as if it was included inline
             where the include directive appears. If a  directory  is  given,
             most of the files in that directory are read in alphabetic order
             before processing of the  including  file  continues.  The  only
             files  which  are  ignored are files which are not regular files
             (such as directories and named pipes) and files whose names  end
             with  one  of the taboo extensions, as specified by the tabooext
             directive.


      mail address
             When a log is rotated out-of-existence, it is mailed to address.
             If  no  mail should be generated by a particular log, the nomail
             directive may be used.


      mailfirst
             When using the mail command, mail the just-rotated file, instead
             of the about-to-expire file.


      maillast
             When  using  the  mail  command,  mail the about-to-expire file,
             instead of the just-rotated file (this is the default).


      maxage count
             Remove rotated logs older than <count> days.  The  age  is  only
             checked if the logfile is to be rotated. The files are mailed to
             the configured address if maillast and mail are configured.


      maxsize size
             Log files are rotated when they grow bigger than size bytes even
             before  the additionally specified time interval (daily, weekly,
             monthly, or yearly).  The related size option is similar  except
             that  it  is  mutually exclusive with the time interval options,
             and it causes log files to be rotated  without  regard  for  the
             last  rotation  time.   When  maxsize is used, both the size and
             timestamp of a log file are considered.


      minsize  size
             Log files are rotated when they grow bigger than size bytes, but
             not  before  the  additionally  specified  time interval (daily,
             weekly, monthly, or yearly).  The related size option is similar
             except  that  it  is  mutually  exclusive with the time interval
             options, and it causes log files to be  rotated  without  regard
             for the last rotation time.  When minsize is used, both the size
             and timestamp of a log file are considered.


      missingok
             If the log file is missing, go on to the next one without  issu-
             ing an error message. See also nomissingok.


      monthly
             Log files are rotated the first time logrotate is run in a month
             (this is normally on the first day of the month).


      nocompress
             Old versions of log files are not compressed. See also compress.


      nocopy Do not copy the original log file and leave it in place.   (this
             overrides the copy option).


      nocopytruncate
             Do  not truncate the original log file in place after creating a
             copy (this overrides the copytruncate option).


      nocreate
             New log  files  are  not  created  (this  overrides  the  create
             option).


      nodelaycompress
             Do not postpone compression of the previous log file to the next
             rotation cycle (this overrides the delaycompress option).


      nodateext
             Do not archive  old versions of log files  with  date  extension
             (this overrides the dateext option).


      nomail Don't mail old log files to any address.


      nomissingok
             If  a  log  file  does  not  exist,  issue an error. This is the
             default.


      noolddir
             Logs are rotated in the same directory the log normally  resides
             in (this overrides the olddir option).


      nosharedscripts
             Run prerotate and postrotate scripts for every log file which is
             rotated (this is the default, and  overrides  the  sharedscripts
             option).  The  absolute  path to the log file is passed as first
             argument to the script. If the  scripts  exit  with  error,  the
             remaining  actions  will  not  be  executed for the affected log
             only.


      noshred
             Do not use shred when deleting old log files. See also shred.


      notifempty
             Do not rotate the log if it is empty (this overrides the ifempty
             option).


      olddir directory
             Logs  are  moved into directory for rotation. The directory must
             be on the same physical device as the log  file  being  rotated,
             and  is  assumed to be relative to the directory holding the log
             file unless an absolute path name is specified. When this option
             is  used  all old versions of the log end up in directory.  This
             option may be overridden by the noolddir option.


      postrotate/endscript
             The lines between postrotate and endscript (both of  which  must
             appear  on  lines  by  themselves)  are executed (using /bin/sh)
             after the log file is rotated. These directives may only  appear
             inside a log file definition. Normally, the absolute path to the
             log file is passed as first argument to the script.  If  shared-
             scripts  is  specified,  whole  pattern is passed to the script.
             See also prerotate. See sharedscripts  and  nosharedscripts  for
             error handling.


      prerotate/endscript
             The  lines  between  prerotate and endscript (both of which must
             appear on lines by  themselves)  are  executed  (using  /bin/sh)
             before the log file is rotated and only if the log will actually
             be rotated. These directives may only appear inside a  log  file
             definition.  Normally,  the  absolute  path  to  the log file is
             passed as first argument to the script.   If   sharedscripts  is
             specified,  whole  pattern  is  passed  to the script.  See also
             postrotate.  See sharedscripts  and  nosharedscripts  for  error
             handling.


      firstaction/endscript
             The  lines between firstaction and endscript (both of which must
             appear on lines by themselves) are executed (using /bin/sh) once
             before  all  log  files  that  match  the wildcarded pattern are
             rotated, before prerotate script is run and only if at least one
             log  will actually be rotated.  These directives may only appear
             inside a log file definition. Whole pattern  is  passed  to  the
             script  as  first  argument.  If the script exits with error, no
             further processing is done. See also lastaction.


      lastaction/endscript
             The lines between lastaction and endscript (both of  which  must
             appear on lines by themselves) are executed (using /bin/sh) once
             after all log  files  that  match  the  wildcarded  pattern  are
             rotated, after postrotate script is run and only if at least one
             log is rotated. These directives may only appear  inside  a  log
             file  definition. Whole pattern is passed to the script as first
             argument. If the script exits with error, just an error  message
             is shown (as this is the last action). See also firstaction.


      rotate count
             Log files are rotated count times before being removed or mailed
             to the address specified in a mail directive. If count is 0, old
             versions are removed rather than rotated.


      size size
             Log  files are rotated only if they grow bigger then size bytes.
             If size is followed by k, the size is assumed  to  be  in  kilo-
             bytes.   If the M is used, the size is in megabytes, and if G is
             used, the size is in gigabytes. So size  100,  size  100k,  size
             100M and size 100Gare all valid.


      sharedscripts
             Normally,  prerotate and postrotate scripts are run for each log
             which is rotated and the absolute path to the log file is passed
             as  first argument to the script. That means a single script may
             be run multiple times for log file entries which match  multiple
             files (such as the /var/log/news/* example). If sharedscripts is
             specified, the scripts are only run once,  no  matter  how  many
             logs  match  the wildcarded pattern, and whole pattern is passed
             to them.  However, if none of the logs in  the  pattern  require
             rotating,  the  scripts  will  not be run at all. If the scripts
             exit with error, the remaining actions will not be executed  for
             any  logs.  This option overrides the nosharedscripts option and
             implies create option.


      shred  Delete log files using  shred  -u  instead  of  unlink().   This
             should  ensure  that logs are not readable after their scheduled
             deletion; this is off by default.  See also noshred.


      shredcycles count
             Asks GNU shred(1) to overwite log files count times before dele-
             tion.  Without this option, shred's default will be used.


      start count
             This is the number to use as the base for rotation. For example,
             if you specify 0, the logs will be created with a  .0  extension
             as they are rotated from the original log files.  If you specify
             9, log files will be created with a  .9,  skipping  0-8.   Files
             will  still  be  rotated  the number of times specified with the
             count directive.


      su user group
             Rotate log files set under this user and group instead of  using
             default  user/group (usually root). user specifies the user name
             used for rotation and group specifies the group used  for  rota-
             tion.


      tabooext [+] list
             The  current  taboo  extension  list is changed (see the include
             directive for information on the taboo extensions). If a +  pre-
             cedes  the  list of extensions, the current taboo extension list
             is augmented, otherwise it is replaced. At  startup,  the  taboo
             extension list contains .rpmsave, .rpmorig, ~, .disabled, .dpkg-
             old, .dpkg-dist, .dpkg-new, .cfsaved, .ucf-old, .ucf-dist, .ucf-
             new, .rpmnew, .swp, .cfsaved, .rhn-cfg-tmp-*


      weekly Log  files  are  rotated if the current weekday is less than the
             weekday of the last rotation or if more than a week  has  passed
             since  the  last rotation. This is normally the same as rotating
             logs on the first day of the week, but it works better if logro-
             tate is not run every night.


      yearly Log files are rotated if the current year is not the same as the
             last rotation.


[править] FILES

      /var/lib/logrotate.status  Default state file.
      /etc/logrotate.conf        Configuration options.

[править] SEE ALSO

[править] AUTHORS

  • Erik Troan
  • Preston Brown
  • Jan Kaluza

Linux Wed Nov 5 2002 LOGROTATE(8)

Источник — «http://xgu.ru/wiki/man/orig/logrotate»