Материал из

Перейти к: навигация, поиск

adduser • man/adduser • man/orig/adduser • Пример использования adduser

ADDUSER(8) FreeBSD System Manager's Manual ADDUSER(8)


[править] NAME

    adduser -- command for adding new users

[править] SYNOPSIS

    adduser [-CDENShq] [-G groups] [-L login_class] [-M mode] [-d partition]
            [-f file] [-g login_group] [-k dotdir] [-m message_file]
            [-s shell] [-u uid_start] [-w type]


    The adduser utility is a shell script, implemented around the pw(8) com-
    mand, for adding new users.  It creates passwd/group entries, a home
    directory, copies dotfiles and sends the new user a welcome message.  It
    supports two modes of operation.  It may be used interactively at the
    command line to add one user at a time, or it may be directed to get the
    list of new users from a file and operate in batch mode without requiring
    any user interaction.


            Login name.  The user name is restricted to whatever pw(8) will
            accept.  Generally this means it may contain only lowercase char-
            acters or digits but cannot begin with the `-' character.  Maxi-
            mum length is 16 characters.  The reasons for this limit are his-
            torical.  Given that people have traditionally wanted to break
            this limit for aesthetic reasons, it has never been of great
            importance to break such a basic fundamental parameter in UNIX.
            You can change UT_NAMESIZE in <utmp.h> and recompile the world;
            people have done this and it works, but you will have problems
            with any precompiled programs, or source that assumes the 8-char-
            acter name limit, such as NIS.  The NIS protocol mandates an
            8-character username.  If you need a longer login name for e-mail
            addresses, you can define an alias in /etc/mail/aliases.
    full name
            This is typically known as the gecos field and usually contains
            the user's full name.  Additionally, it may contain a comma sepa-
            rated list of values such as office number and work and home
            phones.  If the name contains an ampersand it will be replaced by
            the capitalized login name when displayed by other programs.  The
            `:' character is not allowed.
    shell   Unless the -S argument is supplied only valid shells from the
            shell database (/etc/shells) are allowed.  In addition, either
            the base name or the full path of the shell may be supplied.
    UID     Automatically generated or your choice.  It must be less than
    GID/login group
            Automatically generated or your choice.  It must be less than
            You may choose an empty password, disable the password, use a
            randomly generated password or specify your own plaintext pass-
            word, which will be encrypted before being stored in the user


    Perhaps you are missing what can be done with this scheme that falls
    apart with most other schemes.  With each user in their own group, they
    can safely run with a umask of 002 instead of the usual 022 and create
    files in their home directory without worrying about others being able to
    change them.
    For a shared area you create a separate UID/GID (like cvs or ncvs on
    freefall), you place each person that should be able to access this area
    into that new group.
    This model of UID/GID administration allows far greater flexibility than
    lumping users into groups and having to muck with the umask when working
    in a shared area.
    I have been using this model for almost 10 years and found that it works
    for most situations, and has never gotten in the way.  (Rod Grimes)


    The adduser utility reads its configuration information from
    /etc/adduser.conf.  If this file does not exist, it will use predefined
    defaults.  While this file may be edited by hand, the safer option is to
    use the -C command line argument.  With this argument, adduser will start
    interactive input, save the answers to its prompts in /etc/adduser.conf,
    and promptly exit without modifying the user database.  Options specified
    on the command line will take precedence over any values saved in this

[править] OPTIONS

    -C      Create new configuration file and exit.  This option is mutually
            exclusive with the -f option.
    -d partition
            Home partition.  Default partition, under which all user directo-
            ries will be located.  The /nonexistent partition is considered
            special.  The adduser script will not create and populate a home
            directory by that name.  Otherwise, by default it attempts to
            create a home directory.
    -D      Do not attempt to create the home directory.
    -E      Disable the account.  This option will lock the account by
            prepending the string ``*LOCKED* to the password field.  The
            account may be unlocked by the super-user with the pw(8) command:
                  pw unlock [name | uid]
    -f file
            Get the list of accounts to create from file.  If file is ``-,
            then get the list from standard input.  If this option is speci-
            fied, adduser will operate in batch mode and will not seek any
            user input.  If an error is encountered while processing an
            account, it will write a message to standard error and move to
            the next account.  The format of the input file is described
    -g login_group
            Normally, if no login group is specified, it is assumed to be the
            same as the username.  This option makes login_group the default.
    -G groups
            Space-separated list of additional groups.  This option allows
            the user to specify additional groups to add users to.  The user
            is a member of these groups in addition to their login group.
    -h      Print a summary of options and exit.
    -k directory
            Copy files from directory into the home directory of new users;
   will be renamed to .foo.
    -L login_class
            Set default login class.
    -m file
            Send new users a welcome message from file.  Specifying a value
            of no for file causes no message to be sent to new users.  Please
            note that the message file can reference the internal variables
            of the adduser script.
    -M mode
            Create the home directory with permissions set to mode.
    -N      Do not read the default configuration file.
    -q      Minimal user feedback.  In particular, the random password will
            not be echoed to standard output.
    -s shell
            Default shell for new users.  The shell argument may be the base
            name of the shell or the full path.  Unless the -S argument is
            supplied the shell must exist in /etc/shells or be the special
            shell nologin to be considered a valid shell.
    -S      The existence or validity of the specified shell will not be
    -u uid  Use UIDs from uid on up.
    -w type
            Password type.  The adduser utility allows the user to specify
            what type of password to create.  The type argument may have one
            of the following values:
            no      Disable the password.  Instead of an encrypted string,
                    the password field will contain a single `*' character.
                    The user may not log in until the super-user manually
                    enables the password.
            none    Use an empty string as the password.
            yes     Use a user-supplied string as the password.  In interac-
                    tive mode, the user will be prompted for the password.
                    In batch mode, the last (10th) field in the line is
                    assumed to be the password.
            random  Generate a random string and use it as a password.  The
                    password will be echoed to standard output.  In addition,
                    it will be available for inclusion in the message file in
                    the randompass variable.

[править] FORMAT

    When the -f option is used, the account information must be stored in a
    specific format.  All empty lines or lines beginning with a `#' will be
    ignored.  All other lines must contain ten colon (`:') separated fields
    as described below.  Command line options do not take precedence over
    values in the fields.  Only the password field may contain a `:' charac-
    ter as part of the string.
    name      Login name.  This field may not be empty.
    uid       Numeric login user ID.  If this field is left empty, it will be
              automatically generated.
    gid       Numeric primary group ID.  If this field is left empty, a group
              with the same name as the user name will be created and its GID
              will be used instead.
    class     Login class.  This field may be left empty.
    change    Password ageing.  This field denotes the password change date
              for the account.  The format of this field is the same as the
              format of the -p argument to pw(8).  It may be dd-mmm-yy[yy],
              where dd is for the day, mmm is for the month in numeric or
              alphabetical format: ``10 or ``Oct, and yy[yy] is the four
              or two digit year.  To denote a time relative to the current
              date the format is: +n[mhdwoy], where n denotes a number, fol-
              lowed by the minutes, hours, days, weeks, months or years after
              which the password must be changed.  This field may be left
              empty to turn it off.
    expire    Account expiration.  This field denotes the expiry date of the
              account.  The account may not be used after the specified date.
              The format of this field is the same as that for password age-
              ing.  This field may be left empty to turn it off.
    gecos     Full name and other extra information about the user.
    home_dir  Home directory.  If this field is left empty, it will be auto-
              matically created by appending the username to the home parti-
              tion.  The /nonexistent home directory is considered special
              and is understood to mean that no home directory is to be cre-
              ated for the user.
    shell     Login shell.  This field should contain either the base name or
              the full path to a valid login shell.
    password  User password.  This field should contain a plaintext string,
              which will be encrypted before being placed in the user data-
              base.  If the password type is yes and this field is empty, it
              is assumed the account will have an empty password.  If the
              password type is random and this field is not empty, its con-
              tents will be used as a password.  This field will be ignored
              if the -w option is used with a no or none argument.  Be care-
              ful not to terminate this field with a closing `:' because it
              will be treated as part of the password.

[править] FILES

    /etc/master.passwd    user database
    /etc/group            group database
    /etc/shells           shell database
    /etc/login.conf       login classes database
    /etc/adduser.conf     configuration file for adduser
    /etc/adduser.message  message file for adduser
    /usr/share/skel       skeletal login directory
    /var/log/adduser      logfile for adduser

[править] SEE ALSO

[править] HISTORY

    The adduser command appeared in FreeBSD 2.1.

[править] AUTHORS

    This manual page and the original script, in Perl, was written by Wolfram
    Schneider <>.  The replacement script, written as a
    Bourne shell script with some enhancements, and the man page modification
    that came with it were done by Mike Makonnen <>.

[править] BUGS

    In order for adduser to correctly expand variables such as $username and
    $randompass in the message sent to new users, it must let the shell eval-
    uate each line of the message file.  This means that shell commands can
    also be embedded in the message file.  The adduser utility attempts to
    mitigate the possibility of an attacker using this feature by refusing to
    evaluate the file if it is not owned and writable only by the root user.
    In addition, shell special characters and operators will have to be
    escaped when used in the message file.
    Also, password ageing and account expiry times are currently settable
    only in batch mode or when specified in /etc/adduser.conf.  The user
    should be able to set them in interactive mode as well.

FreeBSD 9.0 March 16, 2008 FreeBSD 9.0

Источник — «»