Xgu.ru теперь в Контакте  — приходите и подключайтесь.
Пока мы работаем над следующими видео, вы можете подключиться в Контакте. Познакомимся и обсудим новые страницы и ролики.

Vk-big.pngYoutube-big.jpeg

man/orig/exim

Материал из Xgu.ru

Перейти к: навигация, поиск

Не указан параметр (1)


EXIM(8) EXIM(8)

Содержание

[править] NAME

      exim - a Mail Transfer Agent

[править] SYNOPSIS

      exim [options] arguments ...
      mailq [options] arguments ...
      rsmtp [options] arguments ...
      rmail [options] arguments ...
      runq [options] arguments ...
      newaliases [options] arguments ...

[править] DESCRIPTION

      Exim is a mail transfer agent (MTA) developed at the University of Cam-
      bridge.  It is a large program with very many facilities.  For  a  full
      specification,  see the reference manual. This man page contains only a
      description of the command line options. It has been automatically gen-
      erated  from  the  reference  manual source, hopefully without too much
      mangling.
      Like other MTAs, Exim replaces Sendmail, and is normally called by user
      agents  (MUAs)  using the path /usr/sbin/sendmail when they submit mes-
      sages for delivery (some operating systems use /usr/lib/sendmail). This
      path  is  normally set up as a symbolic link to the Exim binary. It may
      also be used by boot scripts to start the Exim daemon. Many  of  Exim's                                         
      command line options are compatible with Sendmail so that it can act as                                         
      a drop-in replacement.

[править] DEFAULT ACTION

      If no options are present that  require  a  specific  action  (such  as
      starting  the daemon or a queue runner, testing an address, receiving a
      message in a specific format, or listing the queue), and there  are  no
      arguments  on  the  command  line,  Exim  outputs a brief message about
      itself and exits.
      However, if there is at least one command line argument, -bm (accept  a
      local  message on the standard input, with the arguments specifying the
      recipients) is assumed. Thus, for example,  if  Exim  is  installed  in
      /usr/sbin, you can send a message from the command line like this:
        /usr/sbin/exim -i <recipient-address(es)>
        <message content, including all the header lines>
        CTRL-D
      The  -i  option  prevents a line containing just a dot from terminating
      the message. Only an end-of-file (generated by  typing  CTRL-D  if  the
      input is from a terminal) does so.

[править] SETTING OPTIONS BY PROGRAM NAME

      If  an Exim binary is called using one of the names listed in this sec-
      tion (typically via a symbolic link), certain options are assumed.
      mailq  Behave as if the  option  -bp  were  present  before  any  other
             options.   The  -bp option requests a listing of the contents of
             the mail queue on the standard output.
      rsmtp  Behaves as if the option  -bS  were  present  before  any  other
             options,  for  compatibility  with Smail. The -bS option is used
             for reading in a number of messages in batched SMTP format.
      rmail  Behave as if the -i and -oee options  were  present  before  any
             other  options,  for compatibility with Smail. The name rmail is
             used as an interface by some UUCP systems. The -i option  speci-
             fies  that  a  dot  on  a  line  by  itself does not terminate a
             non-SMTP message; -oee requests that errors detected in non-SMTP
             messages be reported by emailing the sender.
      runq   Behave  as  if  the  option  -q  were  present  before any other
             options, for compatibility with Smail. The -q  option  causes  a
             single  queue  runner  process  to  be started. It processes the
             queue once, then exits.
      newaliases
             Behave as if the  option  -bi  were  present  before  any  other
             options,  for  compatibility  with Sendmail. This option is used
             for rebuilding Sendmail's alias file. Exim  does  not  have  the
             concept  of  a single alias file, but can be configured to run a
             specified command if called with the -bi option.

[править] OPTIONS

      --        This is a pseudo-option whose only purpose  is  to  terminate
                the  options  and  therefore to cause subsequent command line
                items to be treated as arguments rather than options, even if
                they begin with hyphens.
      --help    This  option  causes  Exim  to output a few sentences stating
                what it is.  The same output is generated if the Exim  binary
                is called with no options and no arguments.
      --version This  option  is an alias for -bV and causes version informa-
                tion to be displayed.
      -B<type>  This is a Sendmail option for selecting 7 or 8  bit  process-
                ing. Exim is 8-bit clean; it ignores this option.
      -bd       This  option  runs  Exim  as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP
                connections. Usually the -bd  option  is  combined  with  the
                -q<time>  option, to specify that the daemon should also ini-
                tiate periodic queue runs.
                The -bd option can be used only by an admin user.  If  either
                of  the -d (debugging) or -v (verifying) options are set, the
                daemon does not disconnect  from  the  controlling  terminal.
                When  running this way, it can be stopped by pressing ctrl-C.
                By default, Exim listens  for  incoming  connections  to  the
                standard SMTP port on all the host's running interfaces. How-
                ever, it is possible to listen on other  ports,  on  multiple
                ports, and only on specific interfaces.
                When  a  listening  daemon  is started without the use of -oX
                (that is, without overriding the  normal  configuration),  it
                writes  its  process  id  to a file called exim-daemon.pid in
                Exim's spool directory. This location can  be  overridden  by
                setting  PID_FILE_PATH in Local/Makefile. The file is written
                while Exim is still running as root.
                When -oX is used on the command line  to  start  a  listening
                daemon,  the process id is not written to the normal pid file
                path. However, -oP can be used to specify a path on the  com-
                mand line if a pid file is required.
                The  SIGHUP signal can be used to cause the daemon to re-exe-
                cute itself. This should be done whenever  Exim's  configura-
                tion  file, or any file that is incorporated into it by means
                of the .include facility, is changed, and also whenever a new
                version  of Exim is installed. It is not necessary to do this
                when other files that are referenced from  the  configuration
                (for  example,  alias  files)  are changed, because these are
                reread each time they are used.
      -bdf      This option has the same effect as -bd except that  it  never
                disconnects  from  the  controlling  terminal,  even  when no
                debugging is specified.
      -be       Run Exim in expansion testing mode. Exim  discards  its  root
                privilege,  to prevent ordinary users from using this mode to
                read otherwise inaccessible files. If no arguments are given,
                Exim  runs interactively, prompting for lines of data. Other-
                wise, it processes each argument in turn.
                If Exim was built with USE_READLINE=yes in Local/Makefile, it
                tries  to  load  the libreadline library dynamically whenever
                the -be option is used without  command  line  arguments.  If
                successful,  it  uses the readline() function, which provides
                extensive line-editing facilities, for reading the test data.
                A line history is supported.
                Long expansion expressions can be split over several lines by
                using backslash continuations. As in Exim's run time configu-
                ration,  white  space  at  the start of continuation lines is
                ignored. Each argument or data line  is  passed  through  the
                string  expansion  mechanism, and the result is output. Vari-
                able values from the configuration file (for example,  $qual-
                ify_domain)  are  available,  but  no message-specific values
                (such as $sender_domain) are set, because no message is being
                processed (but see -bem and -Mset).
                Note:  If  you  use  this  mechanism to test lookups, and you
                change the data files or databases you are  using,  you  must
                exit  and  restart  Exim before trying the same lookup again.
                Otherwise, because each Exim process caches  the  results  of
                lookups, you will just get the same result as before.
      -bem <filename>
                This option operates like -be except that it must be followed
                by the name of a file. For example:
                  exim -bem /tmp/testmessage
                The file is read as a message (as if receiving a locally-sub-
                mitted  non-SMTP  message)  before any of the test expansions
                are done. Thus,  message-specific  variables  such  as  $mes-
                sage_size   and  $header_from:  are  available.  However,  no
                Received: header is added to the message. If the -t option is
                set,  recipients are read from the headers in the normal way,
                and are shown in the $recipients variable. Note that  recipi-
                ents  cannot  be  given  on the command line, because further
                arguments are taken as strings to expand (just like -be).
      -bF <filename>
                This option is the same as -bf except that  it  assumes  that
                the  filter  being  tested is a system filter. The additional
                commands that are available only in system filters are recog-
                nized.
      -bf <filename>
                This  option  runs Exim in user filter testing mode; the file
                is the filter file to be tested, and a test message  must  be
                supplied  on  the  standard  input.  If  there  are  no  mes-
                sage-dependent tests in the filter, an empty file can be sup-
                plied.
                If  you want to test a system filter file, use -bF instead of
                -bf. You can use both -bF and -bf on  the  same  command,  in
                order  to  test a system filter and a user filter in the same
                run. For example:
                  exim -bF /system/filter -bf /user/filter </test/message
                This is helpful when the system filter adds header  lines  or
                sets filter variables that are used by the user filter.
                If  the  test filter file does not begin with one of the spe-
                cial lines
                  # Exim filter
                  # Sieve filter
                it is taken to be a normal .forward file, and is  tested  for
                validity under that interpretation.
                The  result  of  an  Exim  command that uses -bf, provided no
                errors are detected, is a list of the actions that Exim would
                try  to  take  if  presented  with the message for real. More
                details of filter testing are given in the separate  document
                entitled Exim's interfaces to mail filtering.
                When testing a filter file, the envelope sender can be set by
                the -f option, or by a "From " line at the start of the  test
                message. Various parameters that would normally be taken from
                the envelope recipient address of the message can be  set  by
                means  of  additional command line options (see the next four
                options).
      -bfd <domain>
                This sets the domain of the recipient address when  a  filter
                file  is being tested by means of the -bf option. The default
                is the value of $qualify_domain.
      -bfl <local part>
                This sets the local part of the recipient address when a fil-
                ter  file  is  being  tested  by means of the -bf option. The
                default is the username of the process  that  calls  Exim.  A
                local  part  should  be  specified  with any prefix or suffix
                stripped, because that is how it appears to the filter when a
                message is actually being delivered.
      -bfp <prefix>
                This  sets  the  prefix  of  the  local part of the recipient
                address when a filter file is being tested by  means  of  the
                -bf option. The default is an empty prefix.
      -bfs <suffix>
                This  sets  the  suffix  of  the  local part of the recipient
                address when a filter file is being tested by  means  of  the
                -bf option. The default is an empty suffix.
      -bh <IP address>
                This  option runs a fake SMTP session as if from the given IP
                address, using the standard input and output. The IP  address
                may  include a port number at the end, after a full stop. For
                example:
                  exim -bh 10.9.8.7.1234
                  exim -bh fe80::a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678
                When an IPv6 address is given, it is converted into canonical
                form.  In  the case of the second example above, the value of
                $sender_host_address after conversion to the  canonical  form
                is fe80:0000:0000:0a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678.
                Comments  as  to what is going on are written to the standard
                error file. These include lines beginning with "LOG" for any-
                thing that would have been logged.  This facility is provided
                for testing configuration options for incoming  messages,  to
                make  sure  they  implement the required policy. For example,
                you can test your relay controls using -bh.
                Warning 1: You can test features of  the  configuration  that
                rely  on  ident  (RFC 1413)  information  by  using the -oMt
                option. However, Exim cannot actually perform an ident  call-
                out  when testing using -bh because there is no incoming SMTP
                connection.
                Warning 2: Address verification  callouts  are  also  skipped
                when  testing using -bh. If you want these callouts to occur,
                use -bhc instead.
                Messages supplied during the testing session  are  discarded,
                and  nothing  is  written to any of the real log files. There
                may be pauses when DNS (and other) lookups are taking  place,
                and of course these may time out. The -oMi option can be used
                to specify a specific IP interface and port if this is impor-
                tant, and -oMaa and -oMai can be used to set parameters as if
                the SMTP session were authenticated.
                The exim_checkaccess utility is a "packaged" version  of  -bh
                whose  output  just  states whether a given recipient address
                from a given host is acceptable or not.
                Features such as authentication  and  encryption,  where  the
                client  input is not plain text, cannot easily be tested with
                -bh. Instead, you should use a specialized SMTP test  program
                such as swaks.
      -bhc <IP address>
                This  option  operates  in  the  same way as -bh, except that
                address verification callouts are performed if required. This
                includes  consulting and updating the callout cache database.
      -bi       Sendmail interprets the -bi option as a  request  to  rebuild
                its  alias  file.  Exim does not have the concept of a single
                alias file, and so it cannot mimic this  behaviour.  However,
                calls to /usr/lib/sendmail with the -bi option tend to appear
                in various scripts such as NIS make files, so the option must
                be recognized.
                If  -bi  is encountered, the command specified by the bi_com-
                mand configuration option is run, under the uid  and  gid  of
                the  caller  of Exim. If the -oA option is used, its value is
                passed to the command as an argument.   The  command  set  by
                bi_command may not contain arguments. The command can use the
                exim_dbmbuild utility, or some other means, to rebuild  alias
                files  if  this  is required. If the bi_command option is not
                set, calling Exim with -bi is a no-op.
      -bm       This option runs an Exim receiving process  that  accepts  an
                incoming, locally-generated message on the current input. The
                recipients are given as the command arguments (except when -t
                is  also  present  -  see  below).  Each  argument  can  be a
                comma-separated list of  RFC 2822  addresses.  This  is  the
                default  option  for  selecting the overall action of an Exim
                call; it  is  assumed  if  no  other  conflicting  option  is
                present.
                If  any  addresses  in  the  message are unqualified (have no
                domain), they are  qualified  by  the  values  of  the  qual-
                ify_domain  or qualify_recipient options, as appropriate. The
                -bnq option (see below) provides a way  of  suppressing  this
                for special cases.
                Policy  checks  on  the  contents  of  local  messages can be
                enforced by means of the non-SMTP ACL.
                The return code  is  zero  if  the  message  is  successfully
                accepted.  Otherwise,  the  action  is controlled by the -oex
                option setting - see below.
                The format of the message must be as  defined  in  RFC 2822,
                except  that,  for  compatibility  with Sendmail and Smail, a
                line in one of the forms
                  From sender Fri Jan  5 12:55 GMT 1997
                  From sender Fri, 5 Jan 97 12:55:01
                (with the weekday optional, and possibly with additional text
                after  the  date)  is permitted to appear at the start of the
                message. There appears to be no  authoritative  specification
                of  the  format  of this line. Exim recognizes it by matching
                against the regular expression defined by the  uucp_from_pat-
                tern option, which can be changed if necessary.
                The  specified  sender  is treated as if it were given as the
                argument to the -f  option,  but  if  a  -f  option  is  also
                present,  its  argument  is used in preference to the address
                taken from the message. The caller of Exim must be a  trusted
                user for the sender of a message to be set in this way.
      -bmalware <filename>
                This  debugging  option  causes  Exim to scan the given file,
                using the malware scanning framework.  The option of av_scan-
                ner  influences  this  option,  so  if  av_scanner's value is
                dependent upon an expansion then the  expansion  should  have
                defaults  which  apply  to  this  invocation.   ACLs  are not
                invoked, so if av_scanner references  an  ACL  variable  then
                that  variable  will  never  be  populated and -bmalware will
                fail.
                Exim will have changed working directory before resolving the
                filename,  so  using  fully qualified pathnames is advisable.
                Exim will be running as the Exim user when it tries  to  open
                the  file,  rather  than  as  the invoking user.  This option
                requires admin privileges.
                The -bmalware option will not be extended to be  more  gener-
                ally  useful, there are better tools for file-scanning.  This
                option exists to help administrators verify their Exim and AV
                scanner configuration.
      -bnq      By   default,   Exim   automatically   qualifies  unqualified
                addresses (those without domains)  that  appear  in  messages
                that  are  submitted locally (that is, not over TCP/IP). This
                qualification applies both to  addresses  in  envelopes,  and
                addresses  in  header  lines.  Sender addresses are qualified
                using qualify_domain, and  recipient  addresses  using  qual-
                ify_recipient   (which   defaults   to  the  value  of  qual-
                ify_domain).
                Sometimes, qualification is not wanted. For example,  if  -bS
                (batch  SMTP) is being used to re-submit messages that origi-
                nally came from remote  hosts  after  content  scanning,  you
                probably  do  not  want  to  qualify unqualified addresses in
                header lines. (Such lines will be present only  if  you  have
                not enabled a header syntax check in the appropriate ACL.)
                The  -bnq  option suppresses all qualification of unqualified
                addresses in messages that originate on the local host.  When
                this  is  used, unqualified addresses in the envelope provoke
                errors (causing message rejection) and unqualified  addresses
                in header lines are left alone.
      -bP       If this option is given with no arguments, it causes the val-
                ues of all Exim's main configuration options to be written to
                the  standard  output.  The  values  of  one or more specific
                options can be requested by giving their names as  arguments,
                for example:
                  exim -bP qualify_domain hold_domains
                However,  any  option  setting  that  is preceded by the word
                "hide" in the configuration file is not shown in full, except
                to  an  admin user. For other users, the output is as in this
                example:
                  mysql_servers = <value not displayable>
                If configure_file is given as an argument, the  name  of  the
                run time configuration file is output.  If a list of configu-
                ration files was supplied, the value that is output  here  is
                the name of the file that was actually used.
                If log_file_path or pid_file_path are given, the names of the
                directories where log files and daemon pid files are  written
                are  output,  respectively.  If  these  values are unset, log
                files are written in a sub-directory of the  spool  directory
                called  log,  and  the  pid file is written directly into the
                spool directory.
                If -bP is followed by a name preceded by +, for example,
                  exim -bP +local_domains
                it searches for a matching named list of  any  type  (domain,
                host, address, or local part) and outputs what it finds.
                If  one  of  the words router, transport, or authenticator is
                given,  followed  by  the  name  of  an  appropriate   driver
                instance, the option settings for that driver are output. For
                example:
                  exim -bP transport local_delivery
                The generic driver options are output first, followed by  the
                driver's private options. A list of the names of drivers of a
                particular type can be obtained by using  one  of  the  words
                router_list,  transport_list,  or  authenticator_list,  and a
                complete list of all drivers with their option  settings  can
                be  obtained by using routers, transports, or authenticators.
                If invoked by an  admin  user,  then  macro,  macro_list  and
                macros  are  available,  similarly  to  the drivers.  Because
                macros are sometimes used for storing passwords, this  option
                is restricted.  The output format is one item per line.
      -bp       This  option  requests  a listing of the contents of the mail
                queue on the standard output. If the -bp option  is  followed
                by  a list of message ids, just those messages are listed. By
                default, this option can be used only by an admin user.  How-
                ever,  the  queue_list_requires_admin option can be set false
                to allow any user to see the queue.
                Each message on the queue is displayed as  in  the  following
                example:
                  25m  2.9K 0t5C6f-0000c8-00 <alice@wonderland.fict.example>
                            red.king@looking-glass.fict.example
                            <other addresses>
                The  first  line  contains the length of time the message has
                been on the queue (in this case 25 minutes), the size of  the
                message  (2.9K), the unique local identifier for the message,
                and the message sender, as contained  in  the  envelope.  For
                bounce  messages, the sender address is empty, and appears as
                "<>". If the message was submitted locally  by  an  untrusted
                user  who  overrode  the  default  sender address, the user's
                login name is shown in parentheses before the sender address.
                If  the  message  is  frozen (attempts to deliver it are sus-
                pended) then the text "*** frozen ***" is  displayed  at  the
                end of this line.
                The  recipients  of the message (taken from the envelope, not
                the  headers)  are  displayed  on  subsequent  lines.   Those
                addresses to which the message has already been delivered are
                marked with  the  letter  D.  If  an  original  address  gets
                expanded into several addresses via an alias or forward file,
                the original is displayed with a D only when  deliveries  for
                all of its child addresses are complete.
      -bpa      This  option  operates  like  -bp,  but  in addition it shows
                delivered addresses that were generated from the original top
                level  address(es)  in  each  message  by alias or forwarding
                operations. These addresses are flagged with "+D" instead  of
                just "D".
      -bpc      This  option  counts the number of messages on the queue, and
                writes the total to the standard output. It is restricted  to
                admin users, unless queue_list_requires_admin is set false.
      -bpr      This  option  operates like -bp, but the output is not sorted
                into chronological order of message arrival. This  can  speed
                it  up  when  there are lots of messages on the queue, and is
                particularly useful if the output is going  to  be  post-pro-
                cessed in a way that doesn't need the sorting.
      -bpra     This option is a combination of -bpr and -bpa.
      -bpru     This option is a combination of -bpr and -bpu.
      -bpu      This  option  operates  like  -bp  but shows only undelivered
                top-level addresses for  each  message  displayed.  Addresses
                generated by aliasing or forwarding are not shown, unless the
                message was deferred after processing by a  router  with  the
                one_time option set.
      -brt      This  option  is for testing retry rules, and it must be fol-
                lowed by up to three arguments. It causes Exim to look for  a
                retry  rule  that  matches  the values and to write it to the
                standard output. For example:
                  exim -brt bach.comp.mus.example
                  Retry rule: *.comp.mus.example  F,2h,15m; F,4d,30m;
                 The first argument, which is required,  can  be  a  complete
                address  in  the  form local_part@domain, or it can be just a
                domain name. If the second argument contains  a  dot,  it  is
                interpreted  as  an  optional second domain name; if no retry
                rule is found for the first argument, the  second  is  tried.
                This  ties  in  with  Exim's behaviour when looking for retry
                rules for remote hosts - if no rule is found that matches the
                host, one that matches the mail domain is sought. Finally, an
                argument that is the name of a specific  delivery  error,  as
                used in setting up retry rules, can be given. For example:
                  exim -brt haydn.comp.mus.example quota_3d
                  Retry rule: *@haydn.comp.mus.example quota_3d  F,1h,15m
      -brw      This  option  is  for testing address rewriting rules, and it
                must be followed by a single argument, consisting of either a
                local  part  without  a  domain, or a complete address with a
                fully qualified domain. Exim outputs how this  address  would
                be rewritten for each possible place it might appear.
      -bS       This  option  is  used  for  batched  SMTP input, which is an
                alternative interface for non-interactive local message  sub-
                mission.  A  number  of messages can be submitted in a single
                run. However, despite its  name,  this  is  not  really  SMTP
                input.  Exim reads each message's envelope from SMTP commands
                on the standard input, but generates  no  responses.  If  the
                caller  is  trusted,  or  untrusted_set_sender  is  set,  the
                senders in the SMTP MAIL commands are believed; otherwise the
                sender is always the caller of Exim.
                The  message  itself is read from the standard input, in SMTP
                format (leading dots doubled), terminated by a line  contain-
                ing  just a single dot. An error is provoked if the terminat-
                ing dot is missing. A further message may then follow.
                As for other  local  message  submissions,  the  contents  of
                incoming  batch  SMTP  messages  can  be  checked  using  the
                non-SMTP ACL.  Unqualified addresses are automatically quali-
                fied using qualify_domain and qualify_recipient, as appropri-
                ate, unless the -bnq option is used.
                Some other SMTP commands are recognized in  the  input.  HELO
                and EHLO act as RSET; VRFY, EXPN, ETRN, and HELP act as NOOP;
                QUIT quits, ignoring the rest of the standard input.
                If any error is encountered, reports are written to the stan-
                dard output and error streams, and Exim gives up immediately.
                The return code is 0 if no error was detected; it is 1 if one
                or more messages were accepted before the error was detected;
                otherwise it is 2.


      -bs       This option causes Exim to accept one  or  more  messages  by
                reading  SMTP  commands  on the standard input, and producing
                SMTP replies on the standard output. SMTP policy controls, as
                defined  in  ACLs  are  applied.   Some  user agents use this
                interface as a way of passing locally-generated  messages  to
                the MTA.
                In  this  usage,  if  the  caller  of  Exim  is  trusted,  or
                untrusted_set_sender is set,  the  senders  of  messages  are
                taken  from the SMTP MAIL commands.  Otherwise the content of
                these commands is ignored and the sender is  set  up  as  the
                calling  user. Unqualified addresses are automatically quali-
                fied using qualify_domain and qualify_recipient, as appropri-
                ate, unless the -bnq option is used.
                The  -bs  option  is  also used to run Exim from inetd, as an
                alternative to using a listening daemon. Exim can distinguish
                the  two  cases  by  checking whether the standard input is a
                TCP/IP socket. When Exim is called from inetd, the source  of
                the mail is assumed to be remote, and the comments above con-
                cerning senders and qualification do not apply. In this situ-
                ation,  Exim  behaves in exactly the same way as it does when
                receiving a message via the listening daemon.
      -bt       This option runs Exim in address testing mode, in which  each
                argument  is  taken  as  a recipient address to be tested for
                deliverability. The results are written to the standard  out-
                put. If a test fails, and the caller is not an admin user, no
                details of the failure are output, because these  might  con-
                tain  sensitive  information  such as usernames and passwords
                for database lookups.
                If no arguments are given, Exim runs in an  interactive  man-
                ner, prompting with a right angle bracket for addresses to be
                tested.
                Unlike the -be test option, you cannot arrange  for  Exim  to
                use  the  readline()  function, because it is running as root
                and there are security issues.
                Each address is handled as if it were the  recipient  address
                of  a  message  (compare the -bv option). It is passed to the
                routers and the result is written  to  the  standard  output.
                However, any router that has no_address_test set is bypassed.
                This can make -bt easier to use for genuine routing tests  if
                your first router passes everything to a scanner program.
                The  return code is 2 if any address failed outright; it is 1
                if no address failed outright but at least one could  not  be
                resolved  for  some  reason. Return code 0 is given only when
                all addresses succeed.
                Note: When actually delivering a message, Exim removes dupli-
                cate  recipient  addresses after routing is complete, so that
                only one delivery takes place.  This  does  not  happen  when
                testing  with  -bt;  the  full  results of routing are always
                shown.
                Warning: -bt can only do relatively simple testing. If any of
                the  routers  in  the  configuration  makes  any tests on the
                sender address of a message, you can use the -f option to set
                an appropriate sender when running -bt tests. Without it, the
                sender is assumed to be the calling user at the default qual-
                ifying  domain.  However,  if  you  have set up (for example)
                routers whose behaviour depends on the contents of an  incom-
                ing  message, you cannot test those conditions using -bt. The
                -N option provides a possible way of doing such tests.
      -bV       This option causes Exim to write the current version  number,
                compilation  number,  and compilation date of the exim binary
                to the standard output.  It also lists the DBM  library  that
                is  being used, the optional modules (such as specific lookup
                types), the drivers that are included in the binary, and  the
                name of the run time configuration file that is in use.
                As  part of its operation, -bV causes Exim to read and syntax
                check its configuration file. However, this is a static check
                only.  It  cannot  check  values that are to be expanded. For
                example, although a misspelt ACL verb is detected,  an  error
                in  the verb's arguments is not. You cannot rely on -bV alone
                to discover (for example) all the typos in the configuration;
                some realistic testing is needed. The -bh and -N options pro-
                vide more dynamic testing facilities.
      -bv       This option runs Exim in address verification mode, in  which
                each  argument is taken as a recipient address to be verified
                by the routers. (This does not involve any verification call-
                outs).  During  normal operation, verification happens mostly
                as a consequence processing a verify condition in an ACL.  If
                you  want to test an entire ACL, possibly including callouts,
                see the -bh and -bhc options.
                If verification fails, and the caller is not an  admin  user,
                no  details  of  the  failure are output, because these might
                contain sensitive information such as usernames and passwords
                for database lookups.
                If  no  arguments are given, Exim runs in an interactive man-
                ner, prompting with a right angle bracket for addresses to be
                verified.
                Unlike  the  -be  test option, you cannot arrange for Exim to
                use the readline() function, because it is  running  as  exim
                and there are security issues.
                Verification differs from address testing (the -bt option) in
                that routers that have no_verify set are skipped, and if  the
                address  is  accepted  by  a router that has fail_verify set,
                verification fails. The address is verified as a recipient if
                -bv  is used; to test verification for a sender address, -bvs
                should be used.
                If the -v option is not set, the output consists of a  single
                line  for  each  address,  stating whether it was verified or
                not, and giving a reason in the latter case. Without -v, gen-
                erating more than one address by redirection causes verifica-
                tion to end successfully, without considering  the  generated
                addresses.  However,  if  just one address is generated, pro-
                cessing continues, and the generated address must verify suc-
                cessfully for the overall verification to succeed.
                When -v is set, more details are given of how the address has
                been handled, and in the case of address redirection, all the
                generated  addresses  are  also  considered. Verification may
                succeed for some and fail for others.
                The return code is 2 if any address failed outright; it is  1
                if  no  address failed outright but at least one could not be
                resolved for some reason. Return code 0 is  given  only  when
                all addresses succeed.
                If any of the routers in the configuration makes any tests on
                the sender address of a message, you should use the -f option
                to  set an appropriate sender when running -bv tests. Without
                it, the sender is assumed to  be  the  calling  user  at  the
                default qualifying domain.
      -bvs      This  option  acts  like  -bv,  but verifies the address as a
                sender rather than a  recipient  address.  This  affects  any
                rewriting and qualification that might happen.
      -bw       This  option  runs  Exim  as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP
                connections, similarly to the -bd option.  All port  specifi-
                cations on the command-line and in the configuration file are
                ignored.  Queue-running may not be specified.
                In this mode, Exim expects to be passed  a  socket  as  fd  0
                (stdin) which is listening for connections.  This permits the
                system to start up and have inetd (or equivalent)  listen  on
                the  SMTP  ports,  starting an Exim daemon for each port only
                when the first connection is received.
                If the option is given as -bw<time> then the time is a  time-
                out,  after  which  the  daemon will exit, which should cause
                inetd to listen once more.
      -C <filelist>
                This option causes Exim to find the  run  time  configuration
                file  from  the given list instead of from the list specified
                by the CONFIGURE_FILE compile-time setting. Usually, the list
                will  consist  of  just  a  single file name, but it can be a
                colon-separated list of names. In this case, the  first  file
                that  exists  is used. Failure to open an existing file stops
                Exim from proceeding any further along the list, and an error
                is generated.
                When this option is used by a caller other than root, and the
                list is different from the compiled-in list,  Exim  gives  up
                its  root  privilege  immediately, and runs with the real and
                effective uid and gid set to those of the  caller.   However,
                if  a  TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST file is defined in Local/Makefile,
                that file contains a list of full pathnames,  one  per  line,
                for  configuration files which are trusted. Root privilege is
                retained for any configuration file so listed, as long as the
                caller is the Exim user (or the user specified in the CONFIG-
                URE_OWNER option, if any), and as long as  the  configuration
                file is not writeable by inappropriate users or groups.
                Leaving  TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST  unset precludes the possibility
                of testing a configuration using  -C  right  through  message
                reception  and  delivery,  even  if  the  caller is root. The
                reception works, but by that time, Exim  is  running  as  the
                Exim user, so when it re-executes to regain privilege for the
                delivery, the use of -C causes privilege to be lost. However,
                root  can test reception and delivery using two separate com-
                mands (one to put a message on the  queue,  using  -odq,  and
                another to do the delivery, using -M).
                If  ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX is defined in Local/Makefile, it speci-
                fies a prefix string with which any file named in a  -C  com-
                mand  line option must start. In addition, the file name must
                not contain the sequence /../.  However, if the value of  the
                -C  option  is  identical  to  the value of CONFIGURE_FILE in
                Local/Makefile, Exim ignores -C and proceeds as usual.  There
                is  no  default  setting  for  ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX;  when it is
                unset, any file name can be used with -C.
                ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX can be used to confine alternative configu-
                ration  files  to  a directory to which only root has access.
                This prevents someone who has broken into  the  Exim  account
                from  running  a privileged Exim with an arbitrary configura-
                tion file.
                The -C facility is useful  for  ensuring  that  configuration
                files  are syntactically correct, but cannot be used for test
                deliveries, unless the caller is privileged, or unless it  is
                an  exotic  configuration that does not require privilege. No
                check is made on the owner or group of the files specified by
                this option.
      -D<macro>=<value>
                This  option can be used to override macro definitions in the
                configuration file. However, like -C, if it  is  used  by  an
                unprivileged caller, it causes Exim to give up its root priv-
                ilege.  If DISABLE_D_OPTION is defined in Local/Makefile, the
                use of -D is completely disabled, and its use causes an imme-
                diate error exit.
                If WHITELIST_D_MACROS is defined in  Local/Makefile  then  it
                should  be a colon-separated list of macros which are consid-
                ered safe and, if -D only supplies macros from this list, and
                the  values  are  acceptable, then Exim will not give up root
                privilege if the caller is root, the Exim run-time  user,  or
                the  CONFIGURE_OWNER, if set.  This is a transition mechanism
                and is expected to be removed in the future.  Acceptable val-
                ues for the macros satisfy the regexp: ^[A-Za-z0-9_/.-]*$
                The entire option (including equals sign if present) must all
                be within one command line item. -D can be used  to  set  the
                value  of  a  macro  to  the  empty string, in which case the
                equals sign is optional. These two commands are synonymous:
                  exim -DABC  ...
                  exim -DABC= ...
                To include spaces in a macro definition item, quotes must  be
                used.  If  you  use  quotes,  spaces are permitted around the
                macro name and the equals sign. For example:
                  exim '-D ABC = something' ...
                -D may be repeated up to 10 times on a command line.
      -d<debug options>
                This option causes debugging information to be written to the
                standard  error  stream.  It  is  restricted  to  admin users
                because debugging output may show database queries that  con-
                tain password information. Also, the details of users' filter
                files should be protected. If a non-admin user uses -d,  Exim
                writes  an  error  message  to  the standard error stream and
                exits with a non-zero return code.
                When -d is used, -v is assumed. If -d is given on its own,  a
                lot  of  standard  debugging  data  is  output.  This  can be
                reduced, or increased to  include  some  more  rarely  needed
                information,  by  directly following -d with a string made up
                of names preceded by plus or minus characters. These  add  or
                remove  sets  of  debugging  data, respectively. For example,
                -d+filter  adds  filter  debugging,   whereas   -d-all+filter
                selects  only  filter  debugging.  Note  that  no  spaces are
                allowed in the debug setting. The available  debugging  cate-
                gories are:
                  acl             ACL interpretation
                  auth            authenticators
                  deliver         general delivery logic
                  dns             DNS lookups (see also resolver)
                  dnsbl           DNS black list (aka RBL) code
                  exec            arguments for execv() calls
                  expand          detailed debugging for string expansions
                  filter          filter handling
                  hints_lookup    hints data lookups
                  host_lookup     all types of name-to-IP address handling
                  ident           ident lookup
                  interface       lists of local interfaces
                  lists           matching things in lists
                  load            system load checks
                  local_scan      can be used by local_scan()
                  lookup          general lookup code and all lookups
                  memory          memory handling
                  pid             add pid to debug output lines
                  process_info    setting info for the process log
                  queue_run       queue runs
                  receive         general message reception logic
                  resolver        turn on the DNS resolver's debugging output
                  retry           retry handling
                  rewrite         address rewriting
                  route           address routing
                  timestamp       add timestamp to debug output lines
                  tls             TLS logic
                  transport       transports
                  uid             changes of uid/gid and looking up uid/gid
                  verify          address verification logic
                  all             almost all of the above  (see  below),  and
                also -v
                The  all  option  excludes  memory  when  used  as  +all, but
                includes it for -all. The reason for this  is  that  +all  is
                something  that people tend to use when generating debug out-
                put for Exim maintainers. If +memory is  included,  an  awful
                lot  of  output that is very rarely of interest is generated,
                so it now has to be explicitly requested. However, -all  does
                turn everything off.
                The  resolver option produces output only if the DNS resolver
                was compiled with DEBUG enabled. This is not the case in some
                operating systems. Also, unfortunately, debugging output from
                the DNS resolver is written to stdout rather than stderr.
                The default (-d  with  no  argument)  omits  expand,  filter,
                interface,  load, memory, pid, resolver, and timestamp.  How-
                ever, the pid selector is forced when debugging is turned  on
                for  a  daemon,  which  then  passes it on to any re-executed
                Exims. Exim also automatically adds the pid  to  debug  lines
                when several remote deliveries are run in parallel.
                The timestamp selector causes the current time to be inserted
                at the start of all debug output lines. This  can  be  useful
                when trying to track down delays in processing.
                If  the  debug_print option is set in any driver, it produces
                output whenever any debugging is selected, or if -v is  used.
      -dd<debug options>
                This  option  behaves  exactly  like -d except when used on a
                command that starts a daemon process. In that case, debugging
                is  turned  off for the subprocesses that the daemon creates.
                Thus, it is useful for monitoring the behaviour of the daemon
                without creating as much output as full debugging does.
      -dropcr   This  is  an  obsolete option that is now a no-op. It used to
                affect the way Exim handled CR and LF characters in  incoming
                messages.
      -E        This   option   specifies  that  an  incoming  message  is  a
                locally-generated delivery failure report. It is used  inter-
                nally  by  Exim  when  handling  delivery failures and is not
                intended for external use. Its only effect is  to  stop  Exim
                generating  certain  messages to the postmaster, as otherwise
                message cascades could occur in some situations. As  part  of
                the  same  option, a message id may follow the characters -E.
                If it does, the log entry for the receipt of the new  message
                contains the id, following "R=", as a cross-reference.
      -ex       There  are  a  number  of  Sendmail options starting with -oe
                which seem to be called by various programs without the lead-
                ing  o  in the option. For example, the vacation program uses
                -eq. Exim treats all options of the form  -ex  as  synonymous
                with the corresponding -oex options.
      -F <string>
                This  option  sets  the  sender's  full  name  for use when a
                locally-generated message is being accepted. In  the  absence
                of this option, the user's gecos entry from the password data
                is used. As users are  generally  permitted  to  alter  their
                gecos entries, no security considerations are involved. White
                space between -F and the <string> is optional.
      -f <address>
                This option sets the address of  the  envelope  sender  of  a
                locally-generated  message  (also  known as the return path).
                The option can normally be used only by a trusted  user,  but
                untrusted_set_sender  can  be set to allow untrusted users to
                use it.
                Processes running  as  root  or  the  Exim  user  are  always
                trusted. Other trusted users are defined by the trusted_users
                or trusted_groups options. In the absence of -f,  or  if  the
                caller  is  not trusted, the sender of a local message is set
                to the caller's login name at the default qualify domain.
                There is one exception to the restriction on the use  of  -f:
                an empty sender can be specified by any user, trusted or not,
                to create a message that can never provoke a bounce. An empty
                sender  can  be  specified either as an empty string, or as a
                pair of angle brackets with nothing between them, as in these
                examples of shell commands:
                  exim -f '<>' user@domain
                  exim -f "" user@domain
                In  addition,  the use of -f is not restricted when testing a
                filter file with -bf or when testing or  verifying  addresses
                using the -bt or -bv options.
                Allowing  untrusted  users  to change the sender address does
                not of itself make it possible to send anonymous  mail.  Exim
                still  checks that the From: header refers to the local user,
                and if it does not, it adds a Sender: header, though this can
                be overridden by setting no_local_from_check.
                White  space  between  -f and the <address> is optional (that
                is, they can be given as two arguments or one combined  argu-
                ment).  The sender of a locally-generated message can also be
                set (when permitted) by an initial "From " line in  the  mes-
                sage  -  see the description of -bm above - but if -f is also
                present, it overrides "From ".
      -G        This is a Sendmail option which is ignored by Exim.
      -h <number>
                This option is accepted for compatibility with Sendmail,  but
                has  no  effect.  (In  Sendmail  it overrides the "hop count"
                obtained by counting Received: headers.)
      -i        This option, which has the same effect as -oi, specifies that
                a  dot  on a line by itself should not terminate an incoming,
                non-SMTP message. I can find no documentation for this option
                in Solaris 2.4 Sendmail, but the mailx command in Solaris 2.4
                uses it. See also -ti.
      -M <message id> <message id> ...
                This option requests Exim to run a delivery attempt  on  each
                message  in turn. If any of the messages are frozen, they are
                automatically thawed before the delivery  attempt.  The  set-
                tings  of queue_domains, queue_smtp_domains, and hold_domains
                are ignored.
                Retry hints for any of the addresses are  overridden  -  Exim
                tries  to  deliver  even if the normal retry time has not yet
                been reached. This option requires the caller to be an  admin
                user.  However, there is an option called prod_requires_admin
                which can be set false to relax this  restriction  (and  also
                the same requirement for the -q, -R, and -S options).
                The  deliveries  happen  synchronously, that is, the original
                Exim process  does  not  terminate  until  all  the  delivery
                attempts have finished. No output is produced unless there is
                a serious error. If you want to see what  is  happening,  use
                the -v option as well, or inspect Exim's main log.
      -Mar <message id> <address> <address> ...
                This option requests Exim to add the addresses to the list of
                recipients of the message ("ar" for  "add  recipients").  The
                first  argument  must be a message id, and the remaining ones
                must be email addresses. However, if the  message  is  active
                (in  the  middle  of  a delivery attempt), it is not altered.
                This option can be used only by an admin user.
      -MC <transport> <hostname> <sequence number> <message id>
                This option is not intended for use by external  callers.  It
                is  used  internally  by  Exim  to invoke another instance of
                itself to deliver a waiting message using  an  existing  SMTP
                connection,  which is passed as the standard input. This must
                be the final option, and the caller must be root or the  Exim
                user in order to use it.
      -MCA      This  option  is not intended for use by external callers. It
                is used internally  by  Exim  in  conjunction  with  the  -MC
                option.  It  signifies that the connection to the remote host
                has been authenticated.
      -MCP      This option is not intended for use by external  callers.  It
                is  used  internally  by  Exim  in  conjunction  with the -MC
                option. It signifies that the server to which  Exim  is  con-
                nected supports pipelining.
      -MCQ <process id> <pipe fd>
                This  option  is not intended for use by external callers. It
                is used internally by Exim in conjunction with the -MC option
                when  the original delivery was started by a queue runner. It
                passes on the process id of the queue runner,  together  with
                the  file  descriptor  number of an open pipe. Closure of the
                pipe signals the final completion of  the  sequence  of  pro-
                cesses  that  are passing messages through the same SMTP con-
                nection.
      -MCS      This option is not intended for use by external  callers.  It
                is  used  internally  by  Exim  in  conjunction  with the -MC
                option, and passes on the fact  that  the  SMTP  SIZE  option
                should  be  used on messages delivered down the existing con-
                nection.
      -MCT      This option is not intended for use by external  callers.  It
                is  used  internally  by  Exim  in  conjunction  with the -MC
                option, and passes on the fact that the host to which Exim is
                connected supports TLS encryption.
      -Mc <message id> <message id> ...
                This  option  requests Exim to run a delivery attempt on each
                message in turn, but unlike the -M option, it does check  for
                retry  hints, and respects any that are found. This option is
                not very useful to external callers. It  is  provided  mainly
                for internal use by Exim when it needs to re-invoke itself in
                order to regain root privilege for a delivery.  However,  -Mc
                can  be  useful when testing, in order to run a delivery that
                respects retry times and other options such  as  hold_domains
                that are overridden when -M is used. Such a delivery does not
                count as a queue run.  If you want to run a specific delivery
                as  if  in  a  queue run, you should use -q with a message id
                argument. A distinction  between  queue  run  deliveries  and
                other deliveries is made in one or two places.
      -Mes <message id> <address>
                This option requests Exim to change the sender address in the
                message to the given address, which must be a fully qualified
                address  or  "<>"  ("es"  for  "edit  sender"). There must be
                exactly two arguments. The first argument must be  a  message
                id, and the second one an email address. However, if the mes-
                sage is active (in the middle of  a  delivery  attempt),  its
                status  is  not  altered.  This option can be used only by an
                admin user.
      -Mf <message id> <message id> ...
                This option requests Exim to  mark  each  listed  message  as
                "frozen".  This  prevents  any delivery attempts taking place
                until the message is "thawed", either manually or as a result
                of  the  auto_thaw  configuration option.  However, if any of
                the  messages  are  active  (in  the  middle  of  a  delivery
                attempt),  their  status  is  not altered. This option can be
                used only by an admin user.
      -Mg <message id> <message id> ...
                This option requests Exim to give up trying  to  deliver  the
                listed  messages,  including any that are frozen. However, if
                any of the messages are active, their status is not  altered.
                For  non-bounce messages, a delivery error message is sent to
                the sender, containing the text "cancelled by administrator".
                Bounce  messages  are just discarded. This option can be used
                only by an admin user.
      -Mmad <message id> <message id> ...
                This option requests Exim to mark all the recipient addresses
                in  the  messages  as  already delivered ("mad" for "mark all
                delivered"). However, if any message is active (in the middle
                of  a  delivery  attempt),  its  status  is not altered. This
                option can be used only by an admin user.
      -Mmd <message id> <address> <address> ...
                This option requests Exim to  mark  the  given  addresses  as
                already  delivered  ("md"  for  "mark  delivered"). The first
                argument must be a message id, and the remaining ones must be
                email  addresses. These are matched to recipient addresses in
                the message in a case-sensitive manner.  If  the  message  is
                active  (in  the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is
                not altered. This option can be used only by an admin user.
      -Mrm <message id> <message id> ...
                This option requests Exim to remove the given  messages  from
                the  queue. No bounce messages are sent; each message is sim-
                ply forgotten. However, if any of the  messages  are  active,
                their  status is not altered. This option can be used only by
                an admin user or by the user who originally caused  the  mes-
                sage to be placed on the queue.
      -Mset <message id>
                This  option is useful only in conjunction with -be (that is,
                when testing string expansions). Exim loads the given message
                from its spool before doing the test expansions, thus setting
                message-specific variables  such  as  $message_size  and  the
                header variables. The $recipients variable is made available.
                This feature is provided to make it easier to test expansions
                that make use of these variables. However, this option can be
                used only by an admin user. See also -bem.
      -Mt <message id> <message id> ...
                This option requests Exim to "thaw" any of  the  listed  mes-
                sages  that  are  "frozen",  so  that  delivery  attempts can
                resume. However, if any of the  messages  are  active,  their
                status  is  not  altered.  This option can be used only by an
                admin user.
      -Mvb <message id>
                This option causes the contents  of  the  message  body  (-D)
                spool  file to be written to the standard output. This option
                can be used only by an admin user.
      -Mvc <message id>
                This option causes a copy of  the  complete  message  (header
                lines  plus body) to be written to the standard output in RFC 2822 format. This option can be used only by an admin user.
      -Mvh <message id>
                This option causes the contents of the message  headers  (-H)
                spool  file to be written to the standard output. This option
                can be used only by an admin user.
      -Mvl <message id>
                This option causes the contents of the message log spool file
                to be written to the standard output. This option can be used
                only by an admin user.
      -m        This is apparently a synonym for  -om  that  is  accepted  by
                Sendmail, so Exim treats it that way too.
      -N        This  is  a debugging option that inhibits delivery of a mes-
                sage at the transport level. It implies -v. Exim goes through
                many  of  the  motions of delivery - it just doesn't actually
                transport the message, but instead behaves as if it had  suc-
                cessfully  done  so. However, it does not make any updates to
                the retry database, and the log entries  for  deliveries  are
                flagged with "*>" rather than "=>".
                Because  -N  discards  any  message to which it applies, only
                root or the Exim user are allowed to use it with -bd, -q,  -R
                or  -M. In other words, an ordinary user can use it only when
                supplying  an  incoming  message  to  which  it  will  apply.
                Although  transportation  never  fails  when  -N  is  set, an
                address may be deferred because of a configuration problem on
                a  transport, or a routing problem. Once -N has been used for
                a delivery attempt, it sticks to the message, and applies  to
                any  subsequent  delivery  attempts  that may happen for that
                message.
      -n        This option is interpreted by Sendmail to mean "no aliasing".
                It is ignored by Exim.
      -O <data> This option is interpreted by Sendmail to mean set option. It
                is ignored by Exim.
      -oA <file name>
                This option is used by Sendmail in conjunction  with  -bi  to
                specify an alternative alias file name. Exim handles -bi dif-
                ferently; see the description above.
      -oB <n>   This is a debugging option which limits the maximum number of
                messages  that  can  be  delivered  down one SMTP connection,
                overriding the value set in any smtp  transport.  If  <n>  is
                omitted, the limit is set to 1.
      -odb      This option applies to all modes in which Exim accepts incom-
                ing messages, including the  listening  daemon.  It  requests
                "background"  delivery of such messages, which means that the
                accepting process automatically starts a delivery process for
                each  message  received,  but  does not wait for the delivery
                processes to finish.
                When all the  messages  have  been  received,  the  reception
                process  exits,  leaving  the delivery processes to finish in
                their own time. The standard output  and  error  streams  are
                closed  at  the  start of each delivery process.  This is the
                default action if none of the -od options are present.
                If one of the queueing  options  in  the  configuration  file
                (queue_only  or  queue_only_file,  for example) is in effect,
                -odb overrides it if queue_only_override is set  true,  which
                is  the default setting. If queue_only_override is set false,
                -odb has no effect.
      -odf      This option requests "foreground" (synchronous) delivery when
                Exim  has accepted a locally-generated message. (For the dae-
                mon it is exactly the same as -odb.) A  delivery  process  is
                automatically  started to deliver the message, and Exim waits
                for it to complete before proceeding.
                The original Exim reception process does not finish until the
                delivery  process  for the final message has ended. The stan-
                dard error stream is left open during deliveries.
                However,  like  -odb,  this   option   has   no   effect   if
                queue_only_override  is false and one of the queueing options
                in the configuration file is in effect.
                If there is a  temporary  delivery  error  during  foreground
                delivery,  the  message is left on the queue for later deliv-
                ery, and the original reception process exits.
      -odi      This option is synonymous with -odf. It is provided for  com-
                patibility with Sendmail.
      -odq      This option applies to all modes in which Exim accepts incom-
                ing messages, including the listening  daemon.  It  specifies
                that  the  accepting process should not automatically start a
                delivery process for  each  message  received.  Messages  are
                placed  on  the  queue,  and  remain there until a subsequent
                queue runner process encounters them. There are several  con-
                figuration  options  (such as queue_only) that can be used to
                queue incoming messages under certain conditions. This option
                overrides all of them and also -odqs. It always forces queue-
                ing.
      -odqs     This option is a hybrid between -odb/-odi and -odq.  However,
                like   -odb   and   -odi,   this  option  has  no  effect  if
                queue_only_override is false and one of the queueing  options
                in the configuration file is in effect.
                When  -odqs  does  operate, a delivery process is started for
                each incoming message, in the background by default,  but  in
                the  foreground  if  -odi  is  also  present.  The  recipient
                addresses are routed, and local deliveries are  done  in  the
                normal  way.  However,  if  any SMTP deliveries are required,
                they are not done at this time, so the message remains on the
                queue  until a subsequent queue runner process encounters it.
                Because routing was done, Exim knows which messages are wait-
                ing for which hosts, and so a number of messages for the same
                host  can  be  sent  in  a  single   SMTP   connection.   The
                queue_smtp_domains  configuration  option has the same effect
                for specific domains. See also the -qq option.
      -oee      If an error is detected while a  non-SMTP  message  is  being
                received  (for  example,  a  malformed address), the error is
                reported to the sender in a mail message.
                Provided this error message is successfully  sent,  the  Exim
                receiving  process  exits with a return code of zero. If not,
                the return code is 2 if the problem is that the original mes-
                sage  has  no  recipients,  or 1 any other error. This is the
                default -oex option if Exim is called as rmail.
      -oem      This is the same as -oee, except that Exim always exits  with
                a  non-zero return code, whether or not the error message was
                successfully sent.  This is the default -oex  option,  unless
                Exim is called as rmail.
      -oep      If  an  error  is  detected while a non-SMTP message is being
                received, the error is reported by writing a message  to  the
                standard  error  file (stderr).  The return code is 1 for all
                errors.
      -oeq      This option is supported for compatibility with Sendmail, but
                has the same effect as -oep.
      -oew      This option is supported for compatibility with Sendmail, but
                has the same effect as -oem.
      -oi       This option, which has the same effect as -i, specifies  that
                a  dot  on a line by itself should not terminate an incoming,
                non-SMTP message. Otherwise, a  single  dot  does  terminate,
                though  Exim  does no special processing for other lines that
                start with a dot. This option is set by default  if  Exim  is
                called as rmail. See also -ti.
      -oitrue   This option is treated as synonymous with -oi.
      -oMa <host address>
                A number of options starting with -oM can be used to set val-
                ues associated with remote hosts  on  locally-submitted  mes-
                sages  (that  is,  messages  not received over TCP/IP). These
                options can be used by any caller  in  conjunction  with  the
                -bh,  -be,  -bf,  -bF,  -bt, or -bv testing options. In other
                circumstances, they are ignored unless the caller is trusted.
                The  -oMa  option  sets  the  sender  host  address. This may
                include a port number at the end, after a full stop (period).
                For example:
                  exim -bs -oMa 10.9.8.7.1234
                An  alternative syntax is to enclose the IP address in square
                brackets, followed by a colon and the port number:
                  exim -bs -oMa [10.9.8.7]:1234
                The IP address is placed in  the  $sender_host_address  vari-
                able, and the port, if present, in $sender_host_port. If both
                -oMa and -bh are present on the command line, the sender host
                IP address is taken from whichever one is last.
      -oMaa <name>
                See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The
                -oMaa option sets  the  value  of  $sender_host_authenticated
                (the  authenticator  name).  This option can be used with -bh
                and -bs to set up an authenticated SMTP session without actu-
                ally using the SMTP AUTH command.
      -oMai <string>
                See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The
                -oMai option sets the value of $authenticated_id (the id that
                was  authenticated).   This  overrides the default value (the
                caller's login  id,  except  with  -bh,  where  there  is  no
                default) for messages from local sources.
      -oMas <address>
                See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The
                -oMas option sets the authenticated sender value in  $authen-
                ticated_sender.  It overrides the sender address that is cre-
                ated from the caller's  login  id  for  messages  from  local
                sources,  except  when -bh is used, when there is no default.
                For both -bh and -bs, an authenticated sender that is  speci-
                fied on a MAIL command overrides this value.
      -oMi <interface address>
                See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The
                -oMi option sets the IP interface address value. A port  num-
                ber  may  be included, using the same syntax as for -oMa. The
                interface address is placed in $received_ip_address  and  the
                port number, if present, in $received_port.
      -oMr <protocol name>
                See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The
                -oMr option sets the received protocol value that  is  stored
                in  $received_protocol.  However,  it  does not apply (and is
                ignored) when -bh or -bs is used. For -bh,  the  protocol  is
                forced  to  one of the standard SMTP protocol names. For -bs,
                the protocol is always "local-" followed by one of those same
                names.  For  -bS  (batched SMTP) however, the protocol can be
                set by -oMr.
      -oMs <host name>
                See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The
                -oMs  option  sets the sender host name in $sender_host_name.
                When this option is present, Exim does not attempt to look up
                a host name from an IP address; it uses the name it is given.
      -oMt <ident string>
                See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The
                -oMt option sets the sender ident value in $sender_ident. The
                default setting for local callers is  the  login  id  of  the
                calling  process,  except  when -bh is used, when there is no
                default.
      -om       In Sendmail, this option means "me too", indicating that  the
                sender  of  a message should receive a copy of the message if
                the sender appears in an alias expansion.  Exim  always  does
                this, so the option does nothing.
      -oo       This  option  is ignored. In Sendmail it specifies "old style
                headers", whatever that means.
      -oP <path>
                This option is useful only in conjunction with -bd or -q with
                a  time  value.  The  option  specifies the file to which the
                process id of the daemon is written. When -oX  is  used  with
                -bd,  or when -q with a time is used without -bd, this is the
                only way of causing Exim to write  a  pid  file,  because  in
                those cases, the normal pid file is not used.
      -or <time>
                This  option  sets a timeout value for incoming non-SMTP mes-
                sages. If it is not set, Exim will wait forever for the stan-
                dard  input. The value can also be set by the receive_timeout
                option.
      -os <time>
                This option sets a timeout value for incoming SMTP  messages.
                The  timeout  applies to each SMTP command and block of data.
                The value can also be set by the smtp_receive_timeout option;
                it defaults to 5 minutes.
      -ov       This option has exactly the same effect as -v.
      -oX <number or string>
                This  option  is  relevant only when the -bd (start listening
                daemon) option is also given. It  controls  which  ports  and
                interfaces  the daemon uses. When -oX is used to start a dae-
                mon, no pid file is written unless -oP  is  also  present  to
                specify a pid file name.
      -pd       This  option  applies  when  an  embedded Perl interpreter is
                linked  with  Exim.  It  overrides   the   setting   of   the
                perl_at_start option, forcing the starting of the interpreter
                to be delayed until it is needed.
      -ps       This option applies when  an  embedded  Perl  interpreter  is
                linked   with   Exim.   It   overrides  the  setting  of  the
                perl_at_start option, forcing the starting of the interpreter
                to occur as soon as Exim is started.
      -p<rval>:<sval>
                For compatibility with Sendmail, this option is equivalent to
                  -oMr <rval> -oMs <sval>
                It sets the incoming protocol  and  host  name  (for  trusted
                callers).  The  host  name  and its colon can be omitted when
                only the protocol is to be set.  Note the  Exim  already  has
                two  private  options,  -pd  and  -ps, that refer to embedded
                Perl. It is therefore impossible to set a protocol value of p
                or s using this option (but that does not seem a real limita-
                tion).
      -q        This option is normally restricted to admin  users.  However,
                there  is  a  configuration option called prod_requires_admin
                which can be set false to relax this  restriction  (and  also
                the same requirement for the -M, -R, and -S options).
                The -q option starts one queue runner process. This scans the
                queue of waiting messages, and runs a  delivery  process  for
                each  one in turn. It waits for each delivery process to fin-
                ish before starting the next one. A delivery process may  not
                actually  do  any  deliveries  if  the  retry  times  for the
                addresses have not been reached. Use -qf (see below)  if  you
                want to override this.
                If  the  delivery  process  spawns other processes to deliver
                other messages down passed SMTP connections, the queue runner
                waits for these to finish before proceeding.
                When all the queued messages have been considered, the origi-
                nal queue runner process terminates. In other words, a single
                pass  is  made  over the waiting mail, one message at a time.
                Use -q with a time  (see  below)  if  you  want  this  to  be
                repeated periodically.
                Exim  processes  the  waiting  messages  in  an unpredictable
                order. It isn't very random, but it is likely to be different
                each time, which is all that matters.  If one particular mes-
                sage screws up a remote MTA, other messages to the  same  MTA
                have a chance of getting through if they get tried first.
                It is possible to cause the messages to be processed in lexi-
                cal message id order, which is essentially the order in which
                they  arrived,  by setting the queue_run_in_order option, but
                this is not recommended for normal use.
      -q<qflags>
                The -q option may be followed by one  or  more  flag  letters
                that change its behaviour. They are all optional, but if more
                than one is present, they must appear in the  correct  order.
                Each flag is described in a separate item below.
      -qq...    An  option  starting with -qq requests a two-stage queue run.
                In  the  first  stage,  the  queue  is  scanned  as  if   the
                queue_smtp_domains option matched every domain. Addresses are
                routed, local deliveries happen, but no remote transports are
                run.
                The  hints database that remembers which messages are waiting
                for specific hosts is updated, as if delivery to those  hosts
                had  been  deferred. After this is complete, a second, normal
                queue scan happens, with routing and delivery taking place as
                normal.  Messages  that  are  routed  to the same host should
                mostly be delivered down a single SMTP connection because  of
                the hints that were set up during the first queue scan.  This
                option may be useful for hosts  that  are  connected  to  the
                Internet intermittently.
      -q[q]i... If the i flag is present, the queue runner runs delivery pro-
                cesses only for those messages that haven't  previously  been
                tried. (i stands for "initial delivery".) This can be helpful
                if you are putting messages on the queue using -odq and  want
                a queue runner just to process the new messages.
      -q[q][i]f...
                If  one  f  flag is present, a delivery attempt is forced for
                each  non-frozen  message,  whereas  without  f  only   those
                non-frozen  addresses  that have passed their retry times are
                tried.
      -q[q][i]ff...
                If ff is present, a delivery attempt is forced for every mes-
                sage, whether frozen or not.
      -q[q][i][f[f]]l
                The  l  (the  letter  "ell")  flag  specifies that only local
                deliveries are to be done. If a message requires  any  remote
                deliveries, it remains on the queue for later delivery.
      -q<qflags> <start id> <end id>
                When  scanning  the queue, Exim can be made to skip over mes-
                sages whose ids are lexically less than a given value by fol-
                lowing the -q option with a starting message id. For example:
                  exim -q 0t5C6f-0000c8-00
                Messages that arrived earlier than 0t5C6f-0000c8-00  are  not
                inspected.  If  a  second message id is given, messages whose
                ids are lexically greater than it are also  skipped.  If  the
                same id is given twice, for example,
                  exim -q 0t5C6f-0000c8-00 0t5C6f-0000c8-00
                just  one delivery process is started, for that message. This
                differs from -M in that retry data is respected, and it  also
                differs from -Mc in that it counts as a delivery from a queue
                run. Note that the selection mechanism does  not  affect  the
                order in which the messages are scanned. There are also other
                ways of selecting specific sets of messages for delivery in a
                queue run - see -R and -S.
      -q<qflags><time>
                When  a  time  value is present, the -q option causes Exim to
                run as a daemon, starting a queue runner process at intervals
                specified by the given time value. This form of the -q option
                is commonly combined with the -bd option,  in  which  case  a
                single daemon process handles both functions. A common way of
                starting up a combined daemon at system boot time is to use a
                command such as
                  /usr/exim/bin/exim -bd -q30m
                Such  a  daemon  listens  for  incoming  SMTP calls, and also
                starts a queue runner process every 30 minutes.
                When a daemon is started by -q with a time value, but without
                -bd,  no  pid  file  is  written  unless  one  is  explicitly
                requested by the -oP option.
      -qR<rsflags> <string>
                This option is synonymous with -R. It is provided  for  Send-
                mail compatibility.
      -qS<rsflags> <string>
                This option is synonymous with -S.
      -R<rsflags> <string>
                The  <rsflags>  may  be  empty, in which case the white space
                before the string is optional, unless the string is f, ff, r,
                rf,  or  rff,  which  are  the possible values for <rsflags>.
                White space is required if <rsflags> is not empty.
                This option is similar to -q with no time value, that is,  it
                causes  Exim to perform a single queue run, except that, when
                scanning the messages on the queue, Exim processes only those
                that have at least one undelivered recipient address contain-
                ing the given string, which is checked in a  case-independent
                way.  If  the <rsflags> start with r, <string> is interpreted
                as a regular expression; otherwise it is a literal string.
                If you want to do periodic queue runs for messages with  spe-
                cific  recipients,  you  can  combine  -R  with -q and a time
                value. For example:
                  exim -q25m -R @special.domain.example
                This example does a queue run for messages with recipients in
                the  given domain every 25 minutes. Any additional flags that
                are specified with -q are applied to each queue run.
                Once a message is selected for delivery  by  this  mechanism,
                all  its addresses are processed. For the first selected mes-
                sage, Exim overrides  any  retry  information  and  forces  a
                delivery  attempt  for  each  undelivered address. This means
                that if delivery of any address in the first message is  suc-
                cessful,  any  existing  retry information is deleted, and so
                delivery attempts for that address in  subsequently  selected
                messages (which are processed without forcing) will run. How-
                ever, if delivery of any address does not succeed, the  retry
                information  is  updated,  and  in subsequently selected mes-
                sages, the failing address will be skipped.
                If the <rsflags>  contain  f  or  ff,  the  delivery  forcing
                applies  to all selected messages, not just the first; frozen
                messages are included when ff is present.
                The -R option makes it straightforward to  initiate  delivery
                of  all messages to a given domain after a host has been down
                for some time. When the SMTP command ETRN is accepted by  its
                ACL,  its  default  effect is to run Exim with the -R option,
                but it can be configured to run an arbitrary command instead.
      -r        This is a documented (for Sendmail) obsolete alternative name
                for -f.
      -S<rsflags> <string>
                This option acts like -R except that  it  checks  the  string
                against  each message's sender instead of against the recipi-
                ents. If -R is also set, both conditions must be  met  for  a
                message  to be selected. If either of the options has f or ff
                in its flags, the associated action is taken.
      -Tqt <times>
                This an option that is exclusively for use by the Exim  test-
                ing suite. It is not recognized when Exim is run normally. It
                allows for the setting up of explicit "queue times"  so  that
                various warning/retry features can be tested.
      -t        When  Exim is receiving a locally-generated, non-SMTP message
                on its standard input, the -t option causes the recipients of
                the message to be obtained from the To:, Cc:, and Bcc: header
                lines in the message instead of from the  command  arguments.
                The  addresses are extracted before any rewriting takes place
                and the Bcc: header line, if present, is then removed.
                If the command has any arguments, they specify  addresses  to
                which  the message is not to be delivered. That is, the argu-
                ment addresses are removed from the recipients list  obtained
                from  the  headers.  This  is  compatible with Smail 3 and in
                accordance with the documented behaviour of several  versions
                of Sendmail, as described in man pages on a number of operat-
                ing systems (e.g.  Solaris 8, IRIX 6.5, HP-UX  11).  However,
                some  versions  of  Sendmail  add argument addresses to those
                obtained from the headers, and  the  O'Reilly  Sendmail  book
                documents  it  that  way.  Exim  can  be made to add argument
                addresses instead of subtracting them by setting  the  option
                extract_addresses_remove_arguments false.
                If  there  are  any Resent- header lines in the message, Exim
                extracts recipients  from  all  Resent-To:,  Resent-Cc:,  and
                Resent-Bcc:  header lines instead of from To:, Cc:, and Bcc:.
                This is for  compatibility  with  Sendmail  and  other  MTAs.
                (Prior  to release 4.20, Exim gave an error if -t was used in
                conjunction with Resent- header lines.)
                RFC 2822 talks about different sets of Resent-  header  lines
                (for  when  a  message is resent several times). The RFC also
                specifies that they should be added at the front of the  mes-
                sage,  and  separated  by  Received:  lines. It is not at all
                clear how -t should operate in the present of multiple  sets,
                nor indeed exactly what constitutes a "set".  In practice, it
                seems that MUAs do not follow the RFC. The Resent- lines  are
                often  added  at  the  end of the header, and if a message is
                resent more than once, it is common for the original  set  of
                Resent-  headers to be renamed as X-Resent- when a new set is
                added. This removes any possible ambiguity.
      -ti       This option is exactly equivalent to -t -i.  It  is  provided
                for compatibility with Sendmail.
      -tls-on-connect
                This  option is available when Exim is compiled with TLS sup-
                port. It forces all incoming SMTP connections to behave as if
                the  incoming  port  is  listed  in  the tls_on_connect_ports
                option.
      -U        Sendmail uses this option for "initial  message  submission",
                and  its documentation states that in future releases, it may
                complain about syntactically  invalid  messages  rather  than
                fixing  them  when  this  flag  is not set. Exim ignores this
                option.
      -v        This option causes Exim to write information to the  standard
                error  stream, describing what it is doing. In particular, it
                shows the log lines for receiving and delivering  a  message,
                and  if  an  SMTP  connection  is  made, the SMTP dialogue is
                shown. Some of the log lines shown may not actually be  writ-
                ten  to the log if the setting of log_selector discards them.
                Any relevant selectors are shown with each log line. If  none
                are shown, the logging is unconditional.
      -x        AIX  uses  -x  for a private purpose ("mail from a local mail
                program has National Language Support extended characters  in
                the body of the mail item").  It sets -x when calling the MTA
                from its mail command. Exim ignores this option.

[править] SEE ALSO

      The full Exim specification, the Exim book, and the Exim wiki.
                                                                      EXIM(8)
Источник — «http://xgu.ru/wiki/man/orig/exim»