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man/orig/ifconfig

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IFCONFIG(8) FreeBSD System Manager's Manual IFCONFIG(8)

Содержание

[править] NAME

    ifconfig — configure network interface parameters

[править] SYNOPSIS

    ifconfig [-L] [-k] [-m] [-n] interface [create] address_family [address
             [dest_address]] [parameters]
    ifconfig interface destroy
    ifconfig -a [-L] [-d] [-m] [-u] [-v] [address_family]
    ifconfig -l [-d] [-u] [address_family]
    ifconfig [-L] [-d] [-k] [-m] [-u] [-v] [-C]
    ifconfig [-g groupname]

[править] DESCRIPTION

    The ifconfig utility is used to assign an address to a network interface
    and/or configure network interface parameters.  The ifconfig utility must
    be used at boot time to define the network address of each interface
    present on a machine; it may also be used at a later time to redefine an
    interface's address or other operating parameters.
    The following options are available:
    address
            For the DARPA-Internet family, the address is either a host name
            present in the host name data base, hosts(5), or a DARPA Internet
            address expressed in the Internet standard “dot notation”.
            It is also possible to use the CIDR notation (also known as the
            slash notation) to include the netmask.  That is, one can specify
            an address like 192.168.0.1/16.
            For the “inet6” family, it is also possible to specify the prefix
            length using the slash notation, like ::1/128.  See the prefixlen
            parameter below for more information.
            The link-level (“link”) address is specified as a series of
            colon-separated hex digits.  This can be used to e.g. set a new
            MAC address on an ethernet interface, though the mechanism used
            is not ethernet-specific.  If the interface is already up when
            this option is used, it will be briefly brought down and then
            brought back up again in order to ensure that the receive filter
            in the underlying ethernet hardware is properly reprogrammed.
    address_family
            Specify the address family which affects interpretation of the
            remaining parameters.  Since an interface can receive transmis‐
            sions in differing protocols with different naming schemes, spec‐
            ifying the address family is recommended.  The address or proto‐
            col families currently supported are “inet”, “inet6”, “atalk”,
            “ipx”, and “link”.  The default if available is “inet” or other‐
            wise “link”.  “ether” and “lladdr” are synonyms for “link”.
    dest_address
            Specify the address of the correspondent on the other end of a
            point to point link.
    interface
            This parameter is a string of the form “name unit”, for example,
            “ed0”.
    groupname
            List the interfaces in the given group.
    The following parameters may be set with ifconfig:
    add     Another name for the alias parameter.  Introduced for compatibil‐
            ity with BSD/OS.
    alias   Establish an additional network address for this interface.  This
            is sometimes useful when changing network numbers, and one wishes
            to accept packets addressed to the old interface.  If the address
            is on the same subnet as the first network address for this
            interface, a non-conflicting netmask must be given.  Usually
            0xffffffff is most appropriate.
    -alias  Remove the network address specified.  This would be used if you
            incorrectly specified an alias, or it was no longer needed.  If
            you have incorrectly set an NS address having the side effect of
            specifying the host portion, removing all NS addresses will allow
            you to respecify the host portion.
    anycast
            (Inet6 only.)  Specify that the address configured is an anycast
            address.  Based on the current specification, only routers may
            configure anycast addresses.  Anycast address will not be used as
            source address of any of outgoing IPv6 packets.
    arp     Enable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol (arp(4)) in
            mapping between network level addresses and link level addresses
            (default).  This is currently implemented for mapping between
            DARPA Internet addresses and IEEE 802 48-bit MAC addresses (Eth‐
            ernet, FDDI, and Token Ring addresses).
    -arp    Disable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol (arp(4)).
    staticarp
            If the Address Resolution Protocol is enabled, the host will only
            reply to requests for its addresses, and will never send any
            requests.
    -staticarp
            If the Address Resolution Protocol is enabled, the host will per‐
            form normally, sending out requests and listening for replies.
    broadcast
            (Inet only.)  Specify the address to use to represent broadcasts
            to the network.  The default broadcast address is the address
            with a host part of all 1's.
    debug   Enable driver dependent debugging code; usually, this turns on
            extra console error logging.
    -debug  Disable driver dependent debugging code.
    promisc
            Put interface into permanently promiscuous mode.
    -promisc
            Disable permanently promiscuous mode.
    delete  Another name for the -alias parameter.
    description value, descr value
            Specify a description of the interface.  This can be used to
            label interfaces in situations where they may otherwise be diffi‐
            cult to distinguish.
    -description, -descr
            Clear the interface description.
    down    Mark an interface “down”.  When an interface is marked “down”,
            the system will not attempt to transmit messages through that
            interface.  If possible, the interface will be reset to disable
            reception as well.  This action does not automatically disable
            routes using the interface.
    group group-name
            Assign the interface to a “group”.  Any interface can be in mul‐
            tiple groups.
            Cloned interfaces are members of their interface family group by
            default.  For example, a PPP interface such as ppp0 is a member
            of the PPP interface family group, ppp.
    -group group-name
            Remove the interface from the given “group”.
    eui64   (Inet6 only.)  Fill interface index (lowermost 64bit of an IPv6
            address) automatically.
    fib fib_number
            Specify interface FIB.  A FIB fib_number is assigned to all
            frames or packets received on that interface.  The FIB is not
            inherited, e.g. vlans or other sub-interfaces will use the
            default FIB (0) irrespective of the parent interface's FIB.  The
            kernel needs to be tuned to support more than the default FIB
            using the ROUTETABLES kernel configuration option, or the
            net.fibs tunable.
    ipdst   This is used to specify an Internet host who is willing to
            receive IP packets encapsulating IPX packets bound for a remote
            network.  An apparent point to point link is constructed, and the
            address specified will be taken as the IPX address and network of
            the destination.
    maclabel label
            If Mandatory Access Control support is enabled in the kernel, set
            the MAC label to label.
    media type
            If the driver supports the media selection system, set the media
            type of the interface to type.  Some interfaces support the mutu‐
            ally exclusive use of one of several different physical media
            connectors.  For example, a 10Mbit/s Ethernet interface might
            support the use of either AUI or twisted pair connectors.  Set‐
            ting the media type to 10base5/AUI would change the currently
            active connector to the AUI port.  Setting it to 10baseT/UTP
            would activate twisted pair.  Refer to the interfaces' driver
            specific documentation or man page for a complete list of the
            available types.
    mediaopt opts
            If the driver supports the media selection system, set the speci‐
            fied media options on the interface.  The opts argument is a
            comma delimited list of options to apply to the interface.  Refer
            to the interfaces' driver specific man page for a complete list
            of available options.
    -mediaopt opts
            If the driver supports the media selection system, disable the
            specified media options on the interface.
    mode mode
            If the driver supports the media selection system, set the speci‐
            fied operating mode on the interface to mode.  For IEEE 802.11
            wireless interfaces that support multiple operating modes this
            directive is used to select between 802.11a (11a), 802.11b (11b),
            and 802.11g (11g) operating modes.
    inst minst, instance minst
            Set the media instance to minst.  This is useful for devices
            which have multiple physical layer interfaces (PHYs).
    name name
            Set the interface name to name.
    rxcsum, txcsum
            If the driver supports user-configurable checksum offloading,
            enable receive (or transmit) checksum offloading on the inter‐
            face.  Some drivers may not be able to enable these flags inde‐
            pendently of each other, so setting one may also set the other.
            The driver will offload as much checksum work as it can reliably
            support, the exact level of offloading varies between drivers.
    -rxcsum, -txcsum
            If the driver supports user-configurable checksum offloading,
            disable receive (or transmit) checksum offloading on the inter‐
            face.  These settings may not always be independent of each
            other.
    tso     If the driver supports tcp(4) segmentation offloading, enable TSO
            on the interface.  Some drivers may not be able to support TSO
            for ip(4) and ip6(4) packets, so they may enable only one of
            them.
    -tso    If the driver supports tcp(4) segmentation offloading, disable
            TSO on the interface.  It will always disable TSO for ip(4) and
            ip6(4).
    lro     If the driver supports tcp(4) large receive offloading, enable
            LRO on the interface.
    -lro    If the driver supports tcp(4) large receive offloading, disable
            LRO on the interface.
    wol, wol_ucast, wol_mcast, wol_magic
            Enable Wake On Lan (WOL) support, if available.  WOL is a facil‐
            ity whereby a machine in a low power state may be woken in
            response to a received packet.  There are three types of packets
            that may wake a system: ucast (directed solely to the machine's
            mac address), mcast (directed to a broadcast or multicast
            address), or magic (unicast or multicast frames with a ``magic
            contents).  Not all devices support WOL, those that do indicate
            the mechanisms they support in their capabilities.  wol is a syn‐
            onym for enabling all available WOL mechanisms.  To disable WOL
            use -wol.
    vlanmtu, vlanhwtag, vlanhwfilter, vlanhwcsum, vlanhwtso
            If the driver offers user-configurable VLAN support, enable
            reception of extended frames, tag processing in hardware, frame
            filtering in hardware, checksum offloading, or TSO on VLAN,
            respectively.  Note that this must be issued on a physical inter‐
            face associated with vlan(4), not on a vlan(4) interface itself.
    -vlanmtu, -vlanhwtag, -vlanhwfilter, -vlanhwtso
            If the driver offers user-configurable VLAN support, disable
            reception of extended frames, tag processing in hardware, frame
            filtering in hardware, or TSO on VLAN, respectively.
    vnet jail
            Move the interface to the jail(8), specified by name or JID.  If
            the jail has a virtual network stack, the interface will disap‐
            pear from the current environment and become visible to the jail.
    -vnet jail
            Reclaim the interface from the jail(8), specified by name or JID.
            If the jail has a virtual network stack, the interface will dis‐
            appear from the jail, and become visible to the current network
            environment.
    polling
            Turn on polling(4) feature and disable interrupts on the inter‐
            face, if driver supports this mode.
    -polling
            Turn off polling(4) feature and enable interrupt mode on the
            interface.
    create  Create the specified network pseudo-device.  If the interface is
            given without a unit number, try to create a new device with an
            arbitrary unit number.  If creation of an arbitrary device is
            successful, the new device name is printed to standard output
            unless the interface is renamed or destroyed in the same ifconfig
            invocation.
    destroy
            Destroy the specified network pseudo-device.
    plumb   Another name for the create parameter.  Included for Solaris com‐
            patibility.
    unplumb
            Another name for the destroy parameter.  Included for Solaris
            compatibility.
    metric n
            Set the routing metric of the interface to n, default 0.  The
            routing metric is used by the routing protocol (routed(8)).
            Higher metrics have the effect of making a route less favorable;
            metrics are counted as additional hops to the destination network
            or host.
    mtu n   Set the maximum transmission unit of the interface to n, default
            is interface specific.  The MTU is used to limit the size of
            packets that are transmitted on an interface.  Not all interfaces
            support setting the MTU, and some interfaces have range restric‐
            tions.
    netmask mask
            (Inet only.)  Specify how much of the address to reserve for sub‐
            dividing networks into sub-networks.  The mask includes the net‐
            work part of the local address and the subnet part, which is
            taken from the host field of the address.  The mask can be speci‐
            fied as a single hexadecimal number with a leading ‘0x’, with a
            dot-notation Internet address, or with a pseudo-network name
            listed in the network table networks(5).  The mask contains 1's
            for the bit positions in the 32-bit address which are to be used
            for the network and subnet parts, and 0's for the host part.  The
            mask should contain at least the standard network portion, and
            the subnet field should be contiguous with the network portion.
            The netmask can also be specified in CIDR notation after the
            address.  See the address option above for more information.
    prefixlen len
            (Inet6 only.)  Specify that len bits are reserved for subdividing
            networks into sub-networks.  The len must be integer, and for
            syntactical reason it must be between 0 to 128.  It is almost
            always 64 under the current IPv6 assignment rule.  If the parame‐
            ter is omitted, 64 is used.
            The prefix can also be specified using the slash notation after
            the address.  See the address option above for more information.
    range netrange
            Under appletalk, set the interface to respond to a netrange of
            the form startnet-endnet.  Appletalk uses this scheme instead of
            netmasks though FreeBSD implements it internally as a set of net‐
            masks.
    remove  Another name for the -alias parameter.  Introduced for compati‐
            bility with BSD/OS.
    phase   The argument following this specifies the version (phase) of the
            Appletalk network attached to the interface.  Values of 1 or 2
            are permitted.
    link[0-2]
            Enable special processing of the link level of the interface.
            These three options are interface specific in actual effect, how‐
            ever, they are in general used to select special modes of opera‐
            tion.  An example of this is to enable SLIP compression, or to
            select the connector type for some Ethernet cards.  Refer to the
            man page for the specific driver for more information.
    -link[0-2]
            Disable special processing at the link level with the specified
            interface.
    monitor
            Put the interface in monitor mode.  No packets are transmitted,
            and received packets are discarded after bpf(4) processing.
    -monitor
            Take the interface out of monitor mode.
    up      Mark an interface “up”.  This may be used to enable an interface
            after an “ifconfig down”.  It happens automatically when setting
            the first address on an interface.  If the interface was reset
            when previously marked down, the hardware will be re-initialized.
    The following parameters are for ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol.
    Note that the address family keyword “inet6” is needed for them:
    accept_rtadv
            Set a flag to enable accepting ICMPv6 Router Advertisement mes‐
            sages.  The sysctl(8) variable net.inet6.ip6.accept_rtadv con‐
            trols whether this flag is set by default or not.
    -accept_rtadv
            Clear a flag accept_rtadv.
    no_radr
            Set a flag to control whether routers from which the system
            accepts Router Advertisement messages will be added to the
            Default Router List or not.  When the accept_rtadv flag is dis‐
            abled, this flag has no effect.  The sysctl(8) variable
            net.inet6.ip6.no_radr controls whether this flag is set by
            default or not.
    -no_radr
            Clear a flag no_radr.
    auto_linklocal
            Set a flag to perform automatic link-local address configuration
            when the interface becomes available.  The sysctl(8) variable
            net.inet6.ip6.auto_linklocal controls whether this flag is set by
            default or not.
    -auto_linklocal
            Clear a flag auto_linklocal.
    defaultif
            Set the specified interface as the default route when there is no
            default router.
    -defaultif
            Clear a flag defaultif.
    ifdisabled
            Set a flag to disable all of IPv6 network communications on the
            specified interface.  Note that if there are already configured
            IPv6 addresses on that interface, all of them are marked as
            “tentative” and DAD will be performed when this flag is cleared.
    -ifdisabled
            Clear a flag ifdisabled.  When this flag is cleared and
            auto_linklocal flag is enabled, automatic configuration of a
            link-local address is performed.
    nud     Set a flag to enable Neighbor Unreachability Detection.
    -nud    Clear a flag nud.
    prefer_source
            Set a flag to prefer addresses on the interface as candidates of
            the source address for outgoing packets.
    -prefer_source
            Clear a flag prefer_source.
    The following parameters are specific to cloning IEEE 802.11 wireless
    interfaces with the create request:
    wlandev device
            Use device as the parent for the cloned device.
    wlanmode mode
            Specify the operating mode for this cloned device.  mode is one
            of sta, ahdemo (or adhoc-demo ), ibss, (or adhoc ), ap, (or
            hostap ), wds, tdma, mesh, and monitor.  The operating mode of a
            cloned interface cannot be changed.  The tdma mode is actually
            implemented as an adhoc-demo interface with special properties.
    wlanbssid bssid
            The 802.11 mac address to use for the bssid.  This must be speci‐
            fied at create time for a legacy wds device.
    wlanaddr address
            The local mac address.  If this is not specified then a mac
            address will automatically be assigned to the cloned device.
            Typically this address is the same as the address of the parent
            device but if the bssid parameter is specified then the driver
            will craft a unique address for the device (if supported).
    wdslegacy
            Mark a wds device as operating in ``legacy mode.  Legacy wds
            devices have a fixed peer relationship and do not, for example,
            roam if their peer stops communicating.  For completeness a
            Dynamic WDS (DWDS) interface may marked as -wdslegacy.
    bssid   Request a unique local mac address for the cloned device.  This
            is only possible if the device supports multiple mac addresses.
            To force use of the parent's mac address use -bssid.
    beacons
            Mark the cloned interface as depending on hardware support to
            track received beacons.  To have beacons tracked in software use
            -beacons.  For hostap mode -beacons can also be used to indicate
            no beacons should be transmitted; this can be useful when creat‐
            ing a WDS configuration but wds interfaces can only be created as
            companions to an access point.
    The following parameters are specific to IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces
    cloned with a create operation:
    ampdu   Enable sending and receiving AMPDU frames when using 802.11n
            (default).  The 802.11n specification states a compliant station
            must be capable of receiving AMPDU frames but transmission is
            optional.  Use -ampdu to disable all use of AMPDU with 802.11n.
            For testing and/or to work around interoperability problems one
            can use ampdutx and ampdurx to control use of AMPDU in one direc‐
            tion.
    ampdudensity density
            Set the AMPDU density parameter used when operating with 802.11n.
            This parameter controls the inter-packet gap for AMPDU frames.
            The sending device normally controls this setting but a receiving
            station may request wider gaps.  Legal values for density are 0,
            .25, .5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 (microseconds).  A value of - is
            treated the same as 0.
    ampdulimit limit
            Set the limit on packet size for receiving AMPDU frames when
            operating with 802.11n.  Legal values for limit are 8192, 16384,
            32768, and 65536 but one can also specify just the unique prefix:
            8, 16, 32, 64.  Note the sender may limit the size of AMPDU
            frames to be less than the maximum specified by the receiving
            station.
    amsdu   Enable sending and receiving AMSDU frames when using 802.11n.  By
            default AMSDU is received but not transmitted.  Use -amsdu to
            disable all use of AMSDU with 802.11n.  For testing and/or to
            work around interoperability problems one can use amsdutx and
            amsdurx to control use of AMSDU in one direction.
    amsdulimit limit
            Set the limit on packet size for sending and receiving AMSDU
            frames when operating with 802.11n.  Legal values for limit are
            7935 and 3839 (bytes).  Note the sender may limit the size of
            AMSDU frames to be less than the maximum specified by the receiv‐
            ing station.  Note also that devices are not required to support
            the 7935 limit, only 3839 is required by the specification and
            the larger value may require more memory to be dedicated to sup‐
            port functionality that is rarely used.
    apbridge
            When operating as an access point, pass packets between wireless
            clients directly (default).  To instead let them pass up through
            the system and be forwarded using some other mechanism, use
            -apbridge.  Disabling the internal bridging is useful when traf‐
            fic is to be processed with packet filtering.
    authmode mode
            Set the desired authentication mode in infrastructure mode.  Not
            all adapters support all modes.  The set of valid modes is none,
            open, shared (shared key), 8021x (IEEE 802.1x), and wpa (IEEE
            WPA/WPA2/802.11i).  The 8021x and wpa modes are only useful when
            using an authentication service (a supplicant for client opera‐
            tion or an authenticator when operating as an access point).
            Modes are case insensitive.
    bgscan  Enable background scanning when operating as a station.  Back‐
            ground scanning is a technique whereby a station associated to an
            access point will temporarily leave the channel to scan for
            neighboring stations.  This allows a station to maintain a cache
            of nearby access points so that roaming between access points can
            be done without a lengthy scan operation.  Background scanning is
            done only when a station is not busy and any outbound traffic
            will cancel a scan operation.  Background scanning should never
            cause packets to be lost though there may be some small latency
            if outbound traffic interrupts a scan operation.  By default
            background scanning is enabled if the device is capable.  To dis‐
            able background scanning, use -bgscan.  Background scanning is
            controlled by the bgscanidle and bgscanintvl parameters.  Back‐
            ground scanning must be enabled for roaming; this is an artifact
            of the current implementation and may not be required in the
            future.
    bgscanidle idletime
            Set the minimum time a station must be idle (not transmitting or
            receiving frames) before a background scan is initiated.  The
            idletime parameter is specified in milliseconds.  By default a
            station must be idle at least 250 milliseconds before a back‐
            ground scan is initiated.  The idle time may not be set to less
            than 100 milliseconds.
    bgscanintvl interval
            Set the interval at which background scanning is attempted.  The
            interval parameter is specified in seconds.  By default a back‐
            ground scan is considered every 300 seconds (5 minutes).  The
            interval may not be set to less than 15 seconds.
    bintval interval
            Set the interval at which beacon frames are sent when operating
            in ad-hoc or ap mode.  The interval parameter is specified in
            TU's (1024 usecs).  By default beacon frames are transmitted
            every 100 TU's.
    bmissthreshold count
            Set the number of consecutive missed beacons at which the station
            will attempt to roam (i.e., search for a new access point).  The
            count parameter must be in the range 1 to 255; though the upper
            bound may be reduced according to device capabilities.  The
            default threshold is 7 consecutive missed beacons; but this may
            be overridden by the device driver.  Another name for the
            bmissthreshold parameter is bmiss.
    bssid address
            Specify the MAC address of the access point to use when operating
            as a station in a BSS network.  This overrides any automatic
            selection done by the system.  To disable a previously selected
            access point, supply any, none, or - for the address.  This
            option is useful when more than one access point uses the same
            SSID.  Another name for the bssid parameter is ap.
    burst   Enable packet bursting.  Packet bursting is a transmission tech‐
            nique whereby the wireless medium is acquired once to send multi‐
            ple frames and the interframe spacing is reduced.  This technique
            can significantly increase throughput by reducing transmission
            overhead.  Packet bursting is supported by the 802.11e QoS speci‐
            fication and some devices that do not support QoS may still be
            capable.  By default packet bursting is enabled if a device is
            capable of doing it.  To disable packet bursting, use -burst.
    chanlist channels
            Set the desired channels to use when scanning for access points,
            neighbors in an IBSS network, or looking for unoccupied channels
            when operating as an access point.  The set of channels is speci‐
            fied as a comma-separated list with each element in the list rep‐
            resenting either a single channel number or a range of the form
            “a-b”.  Channel numbers must be in the range 1 to 255 and be per‐
            missible according to the operating characteristics of the
            device.
    channel number
            Set a single desired channel.  Channels range from 1 to 255, but
            the exact selection available depends on the region your adaptor
            was manufactured for.  Setting the channel to any, or - will
            clear any desired channel and, if the device is marked up, force
            a scan for a channel to operate on.  Alternatively the frequency,
            in megahertz, may be specified instead of the channel number.
            When there are several ways to use a channel the channel num‐
            ber/frequency may be appended with attributes to clarify.  For
            example, if a device is capable of operating on channel 6 with
            802.11n and 802.11g then one can specify that g-only use should
            be used by specifying ``6:g.  Similarly the channel width can
            be specified by appending it with ``/; e.g. ``6/40 specifies
            a 40MHz wide channel, These attributes can be combined as in:
            ``6:ht/40.  The full set of flags specified following a ``:
            are: a (802.11a), b (802.11b), d (Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode), g
            (802.11g), h or n (802.11n aka HT), s (Atheros Static Turbo
            mode), and t (Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode, or appended to ``st
            and ``dt).  The full set of channel widths following a '/' are:
            5 (5MHz aka quarter-rate channel), 10 (10MHz aka half-rate chan‐
            nel), 20 (20MHz mostly for use in specifying ht20), and 40 (40MHz
            mostly for use in specifying ht40).  In addition, a 40MHz HT
            channel specification may include the location of the extension
            channel by appending ``+ or ``- for above and below, respec‐
            tively; e.g. ``2437:ht/40+ specifies 40MHz wide HT operation
            with the center channel at frequency 2437 and the extension chan‐
            nel above.
    country name
            Set the country code to use in calculating the regulatory con‐
            straints for operation.  In particular the set of available chan‐
            nels, how the wireless device will operation on the channels, and
            the maximum transmit power that can be used on a channel are
            defined by this setting.  Country/Region codes are specified as a
            2-character abbreviation defined by ISO 3166 or using a longer,
            but possibly ambiguous, spelling; e.g. "ES" and "Spain".  The set
            of country codes are taken from /etc/regdomain.xml and can also
            be viewed with the ``list countries request.  Note that not all
            devices support changing the country code from a default setting;
            typically stored in EEPROM.  See also regdomain, indoor, outdoor,
            and anywhere.
    dfs     Enable Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) as specified in 802.11h.
            DFS embodies several facilities including detection of overlap‐
            ping radar signals, dynamic transmit power control, and channel
            selection according to a least-congested criteria.  DFS support
            is mandatory for some 5GHz frequencies in certain locales (e.g.
            ETSI).  By default DFS is enabled according to the regulatory
            definitions specified in /etc/regdomain.xml and the current coun‐
            try code, regdomain, and channel.  Note the underlying device
            (and driver) must support radar detection for full DFS support to
            work.  To be fully compliant with the local regulatory agency
            frequencies that require DFS should not be used unless it is
            fully supported.  Use -dfs to disable this functionality for
            testing.
    dotd    Enable support for the 802.11d specification (default).  When
            this support is enabled in station mode, beacon frames that
            advertise a country code different than the currently configured
            country code will cause an event to be dispatched to user appli‐
            cations.  This event can be used by the station to adopt that
            country code and operate according to the associated regulatory
            constraints.  When operating as an access point with 802.11d
            enabled the beacon and probe response frames transmitted will
            advertise the current regulatory domain settings.  To disable
            802.11d use -dotd.
    doth    Enable 802.11h support including spectrum management.  When
            802.11h is enabled beacon and probe response frames will have the
            SpectrumMgt bit set in the capabilities field and country and
            power constraint information elements will be present.  802.11h
            support also includes handling Channel Switch Announcements (CSA)
            which are a mechanism to coordinate channel changes by an access
            point.  By default 802.11h is enabled if the device is capable.
            To disable 802.11h use -doth.
    deftxkey index
            Set the default key to use for transmission.  Typically this is
            only set when using WEP encryption.  Note that you must set a
            default transmit key for the system to know which key to use in
            encrypting outbound traffic.  The weptxkey is an alias for this
            request; it is provided for backwards compatibility.
    dtimperiod period
            Set the DTIM period for transmitting buffered multicast data
            frames when operating in ap mode.  The period specifies the num‐
            ber of beacon intervals between DTIM and must be in the range 1
            to 15.  By default DTIM is 1 (i.e., DTIM occurs at each beacon).
    dturbo  Enable the use of Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode when communicating
            with another Dynamic Turbo-capable station.  Dynamic Turbo mode
            is an Atheros-specific mechanism by which stations switch between
            normal 802.11 operation and a ``boosted mode in which a 40MHz
            wide channel is used for communication.  Stations using Dynamic
            Turbo mode operate boosted only when the channel is free of non-
            dturbo stations; when a non-dturbo station is identified on the
            channel all stations will automatically drop back to normal oper‐
            ation.  By default, Dynamic Turbo mode is not enabled, even if
            the device is capable.  Note that turbo mode (dynamic or static)
            is only allowed on some channels depending on the regulatory con‐
            straints; use the list chan command to identify the channels
            where turbo mode may be used.  To disable Dynamic Turbo mode use
            -dturbo.
    dwds    Enable Dynamic WDS (DWDS) support.  DWDS is a facility by which
            4-address traffic can be carried between stations operating in
            infrastructure mode.  A station first associates to an access
            point and authenticates using normal procedures (e.g. WPA).  Then
            4-address frames are passed to carry traffic for stations operat‐
            ing on either side of the wireless link.  DWDS extends the normal
            WDS mechanism by leveraging existing security protocols and elim‐
            inating static binding.
            When DWDS is enabled on an access point 4-address frames received
            from an authorized station will generate a ``DWDS discovery
            event to user applications.  This event should be used to create
            a WDS interface that is bound to the remote station (and usually
            plumbed into a bridge).  Once the WDS interface is up and running
            4-address traffic then logically flows through that interface.
            When DWDS is enabled on a station, traffic with a destination
            address different from the peer station are encapsulated in a
            4-address frame and transmitted to the peer.  All 4-address traf‐
            fic uses the security information of the stations (e.g. crypto‐
            graphic keys).  A station is associated using 802.11n facilities
            may transport 4-address traffic using these same mechanisms; this
            depends on available resources and capabilities of the device.
            The DWDS implementation guards against layer 2 routing loops of
            multicast traffic.
    ff      Enable the use of Atheros Fast Frames when communicating with
            another Fast Frames-capable station.  Fast Frames are an encapsu‐
            lation technique by which two 802.3 frames are transmitted in a
            single 802.11 frame.  This can noticeably improve throughput but
            requires that the receiving station understand how to decapsulate
            the frame.  Fast frame use is negotiated using the Atheros 802.11
            vendor-specific protocol extension so enabling use is safe when
            communicating with non-Atheros devices.  By default, use of fast
            frames is enabled if the device is capable.  To explicitly dis‐
            able fast frames, use -ff.
    fragthreshold length
            Set the threshold for which transmitted frames are broken into
            fragments.  The length argument is the frame size in bytes and
            must be in the range 256 to 2346.  Setting length to 2346, any,
            or - disables transmit fragmentation.  Not all adapters honor the
            fragmentation threshold.
    hidessid
            When operating as an access point, do not broadcast the SSID in
            beacon frames or respond to probe request frames unless they are
            directed to the ap (i.e., they include the ap's SSID).  By
            default, the SSID is included in beacon frames and undirected
            probe request frames are answered.  To re-enable the broadcast of
            the SSID etc., use -hidessid.
    ht      Enable use of High Throughput (HT) when using 802.11n (default).
            The 802.11n specification includes mechanisms for operation on
            20MHz and 40MHz wide channels using different signalling mecha‐
            nisms than specified in 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11a.  Stations
            negotiate use of these facilities, termed HT20 and HT40, when
            they associate.  To disable all use of 802.11n use -ht.  To dis‐
            able use of HT20 (e.g. to force only HT40 use) use -ht20.  To
            disable use of HT40 use -ht40.
            HT configuration is used to ``auto promote operation when sev‐
            eral choices are available.  For example, if a station associates
            to an 11n-capable access point it controls whether the station
            uses legacy operation, HT20, or HT40.  When an 11n-capable device
            is setup as an access point and Auto Channel Selection is used to
            locate a channel to operate on, HT configuration controls whether
            legacy, HT20, or HT40 operation is setup on the selected channel.
            If a fixed channel is specified for a station then HT configura‐
            tion can be given as part of the channel specification; e.g.
            6:ht/20 to setup HT20 operation on channel 6.
    htcompat
            Enable use of compatibility support for pre-802.11n devices
            (default).  The 802.11n protocol specification went through sev‐
            eral incompatible iterations.  Some vendors implemented 11n sup‐
            port to older specifications that will not interoperate with a
            purely 11n-compliant station.  In particular the information ele‐
            ments included in management frames for old devices are differ‐
            ent.  When compatibility support is enabled both standard and
            compatible data will be provided.  Stations that associate using
            the compatibility mechanisms are flagged in ``list sta.  To
            disable compatibility support use -htcompat.
    htprotmode technique
            For interfaces operating in 802.11n, use the specified technique
            for protecting HT frames in a mixed legacy/HT network.  The set
            of valid techniques is off, and rts (RTS/CTS, default).  Tech‐
            nique names are case insensitive.
    inact   Enable inactivity processing for stations associated to an access
            point (default).  When operating as an access point the 802.11
            layer monitors the activity of each associated station.  When a
            station is inactive for 5 minutes it will send several ``probe
            frames to see if the station is still present.  If no response
            is received then the station is deauthenticated.  Applications
            that prefer to handle this work can disable this facility by
            using -inact.
    indoor  Set the location to use in calculating regulatory constraints.
            The location is also advertised in beacon and probe response
            frames when 802.11d is enabled with dotd.  See also outdoor,
            anywhere, country, and regdomain.
    list active
            Display the list of channels available for use taking into
            account any restrictions set with the chanlist directive.  See
            the description of list chan for more information.
    list caps
            Display the adaptor's capabilities, including the operating modes
            supported.
    list chan
            Display the list of channels available for use.  Channels are
            shown with their IEEE channel number, equivalent frequency, and
            usage modes.  Channels identified as ‘11g’ are also usable in
            ‘11b’ mode.  Channels identified as ‘11a Turbo’ may be used only
            for Atheros' Static Turbo mode (specified with mediaopt turbo).
            Channels marked with a ‘*’ have a regulatory constraint that they
            be passively scanned.  This means a station is not permitted to
            transmit on the channel until it identifies the channel is being
            used for 802.11 communication; typically by hearing a beacon
            frame from an access point operating on the channel.  list freq
            is another way of requesting this information.  By default a com‐
            pacted list of channels is displayed; if the -v option is speci‐
            fied then all channels are shown.
    list countries
            Display the set of country codes and regulatory domains that can
            be used in regulatory configuration.
    list mac
            Display the current MAC Access Control List state.  Each address
            is prefixed with a character that indicates the current policy
            applied to it: ‘+’ indicates the address is allowed access, ‘-’
            indicates the address is denied access, ‘*’ indicates the address
            is present but the current policy open (so the ACL is not con‐
            sulted).
    list mesh
            Displays the mesh routing table, used for forwarding packets on a
            mesh network.
    list regdomain
            Display the current regulatory settings including the available
            channels and transmit power caps.
    list roam
            Display the parameters that govern roaming operation.
    list txparam
            Display the parameters that govern transmit operation.
    list txpower
            Display the transmit power caps for each channel.
    list scan
            Display the access points and/or ad-hoc neighbors located in the
            vicinity.  This information may be updated automatically by the
            adapter with a scan request or through background scanning.
            Depending on the capabilities of the stations the following flags
            can be included in the output:
            A    Authorized.  Indicates that the station is permitted to
                 send/receive data frames.
            E    Extended Rate Phy (ERP).  Indicates that the station is
                 operating in an 802.11g network using extended transmit
                 rates.
            H    High Throughput (HT).  Indicates that the station is using
                 HT transmit rates.  If a `+' follows immediately after then
                 the station associated using deprecated mechanisms supported
                 only when htcompat is enabled.
            P    Power Save.  Indicates that the station is operating in
                 power save mode.
            Q    Quality of Service (QoS).  Indicates that the station is
                 using QoS encapsulation for data frame.  QoS encapsulation
                 is enabled only when WME mode is enabled.
            S    Short Preamble.  Indicates that the station is doing short
                 preamble to optionally improve throughput performance with
                 802.11g and 802.11b.
            T    Transitional Security Network (TSN).  Indicates that the
                 station associated using TSN; see also tsn below.
            W    Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS).  Indicates that the station
                 associated using WPS.
            By default interesting information elements captured from the
            neighboring stations are displayed at the end of each row.  Pos‐
            sible elements include: WME (station supports WME), WPA (station
            supports WPA), WPS (station supports WPS), RSN (station supports
            802.11i/RSN), HTCAP (station supports 802.11n/HT communication),
            ATH (station supports Atheros protocol extensions), VEN (station
            supports unknown vendor-specific extensions).  If the -v flag is
            used all the information elements and their contents will be
            shown.  Specifying the -v flag also enables display of long
            SSIDs.  The list ap command is another way of requesting this
            information.
    list sta
            When operating as an access point display the stations that are
            currently associated.  When operating in ad-hoc mode display sta‐
            tions identified as neighbors in the IBSS.  When operating in
            mesh mode display stations identified as neighbors in the MBSS.
            When operating in station mode display the access point.  Capa‐
            bilities advertised by the stations are described under the scan
            request.  Depending on the capabilities of the stations the fol‐
            lowing flags can be included in the output:
            A    Authorized.  Indicates that the station is permitted to
                 send/receive data frames.
            E    Extended Rate Phy (ERP).  Indicates that the station is
                 operating in an 802.11g network using extended transmit
                 rates.
            H    High Throughput (HT).  Indicates that the station is using
                 HT transmit rates.  If a `+' follows immediately after then
                 the station associated using deprecated mechanisms supported
                 only when htcompat is enabled.
            P    Power Save.  Indicates that the station is operating in
                 power save mode.
            Q    Quality of Service (QoS).  Indicates that the station is
                 using QoS encapsulation for data frame.  QoS encapsulation
                 is enabled only when WME mode is enabled.
            S    Short Preamble.  Indicates that the station is doing short
                 preamble to optionally improve throughput performance with
                 802.11g and 802.11b.
            T    Transitional Security Network (TSN).  Indicates that the
                 station associated using TSN; see also tsn below.
            W    Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS).  Indicates that the station
                 associated using WPS.
            By default information elements received from associated stations
            are displayed in a short form; the -v flag causes this informa‐
            tion to be displayed symbolically.
    list wme
            Display the current channel parameters to use when operating in
            WME mode.  If the -v option is specified then both channel and
            BSS parameters are displayed for each AC (first channel, then
            BSS).  When WME mode is enabled for an adaptor this information
            will be displayed with the regular status; this command is mostly
            useful for examining parameters when WME mode is disabled.  See
            the description of the wme directive for information on the vari‐
            ous parameters.
    maxretry count
            Set the maximum number of tries to use in sending unicast frames.
            The default setting is 6 but drivers may override this with a
            value they choose.
    mcastrate rate
            Set the rate for transmitting multicast/broadcast frames.  Rates
            are specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g. 5.5 for 5.5
            Mb/s.  This rate should be valid for the current operating condi‐
            tions; if an invalid rate is specified drivers are free to chose
            an appropriate rate.
    mgtrate rate
            Set the rate for transmitting management and/or control frames.
            Rates are specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g. 5.5 for
            5.5 Mb/s.
    outdoor
            Set the location to use in calculating regulatory constraints.
            The location is also advertised in beacon and probe response
            frames when 802.11d is enabled with dotd.  See also anywhere,
            country, indoor, and regdomain.
    powersave
            Enable powersave operation.  When operating as a client, the sta‐
            tion will conserve power by periodically turning off the radio
            and listening for messages from the access point telling it there
            are packets waiting.  The station must then retrieve the packets.
            Not all devices support power save operation as a client.  The
            802.11 specification requires that all access points support
            power save but some drivers do not.  Use -powersave to disable
            powersave operation when operating as a client.
    powersavesleep sleep
            Set the desired max powersave sleep time in TU's (1024 usecs).
            By default the max powersave sleep time is 100 TU's.
    protmode technique
            For interfaces operating in 802.11g, use the specified technique
            for protecting OFDM frames in a mixed 11b/11g network.  The set
            of valid techniques is off, cts (CTS to self), and rtscts
            (RTS/CTS).  Technique names are case insensitive.  Not all
            devices support cts as a protection technique.
    pureg   When operating as an access point in 802.11g mode allow only 11g-
            capable stations to associate (11b-only stations are not permit‐
            ted to associate).  To allow both 11g and 11b-only stations to
            associate, use -pureg.
    puren   When operating as an access point in 802.11n mode allow only HT-
            capable stations to associate (legacy stations are not permitted
            to associate).  To allow both HT and legacy stations to asso‐
            ciate, use -puren.
    regdomain sku
            Set the regulatory domain to use in calculating the regulatory
            constraints for operation.  In particular the set of available
            channels, how the wireless device will operation on the channels,
            and the maximum transmit power that can be used on a channel are
            defined by this setting.  Regdomain codes (SKU's) are taken from
            /etc/regdomain.xml and can also be viewed with the ``list coun‐
            tries request.  Note that not all devices support changing the
            regdomain from a default setting; typically stored in EEPROM.
            See also country, indoor, outdoor, and anywhere.
    rifs    Enable use of Reduced InterFrame Spacing (RIFS) when operating in
            802.11n on an HT channel.  Note that RIFS must be supported by
            both the station and access point for it to be used.  To disable
            RIFS use -rifs.
    roam:rate rate
            Set the threshold for controlling roaming when operating in a
            BSS.  The rate parameter specifies the transmit rate in megabits
            at which roaming should be considered.  If the current transmit
            rate drops below this setting and background scanning is enabled,
            then the system will check if a more desirable access point is
            available and switch over to it.  The current scan cache contents
            are used if they are considered valid according to the scanvalid
            parameter; otherwise a background scan operation is triggered
            before any selection occurs.  Each channel type has a separate
            rate threshold; the default values are: 12 Mb/s (11a), 2 Mb/s
            (11b), 2 Mb/s (11g), MCS 1 (11na, 11ng).
    roam:rssi rssi
            Set the threshold for controlling roaming when operating in a
            BSS.  The rssi parameter specifies the receive signal strength in
            dBm units at which roaming should be considered.  If the current
            rssi drops below this setting and background scanning is enabled,
            then the system will check if a more desirable access point is
            available and switch over to it.  The current scan cache contents
            are used if they are considered valid according to the scanvalid
            parameter; otherwise a background scan operation is triggered
            before any selection occurs.  Each channel type has a separate
            rssi threshold; the default values are all 7 dBm.
    roaming mode
            When operating as a station, control how the system will behave
            when communication with the current access point is broken.  The
            mode argument may be one of device (leave it to the hardware
            device to decide), auto (handle either in the device or the oper‐
            ating system—as appropriate), manual (do nothing until explicitly
            instructed).  By default, the device is left to handle this if it
            is capable; otherwise, the operating system will automatically
            attempt to reestablish communication.  Manual mode is used by
            applications such as wpa_supplicant(8) that want to control the
            selection of an access point.
    rtsthreshold length
            Set the threshold for which transmitted frames are preceded by
            transmission of an RTS control frame.  The length argument is the
            frame size in bytes and must be in the range 1 to 2346.  Setting
            length to 2346, any, or - disables transmission of RTS frames.
            Not all adapters support setting the RTS threshold.
    scan    Initiate a scan of neighboring stations, wait for it to complete,
            and display all stations found.  Only the super-user can initiate
            a scan.  See list scan for information on the display.  By
            default a background scan is done; otherwise a foreground scan is
            done and the station may roam to a different access point.  The
            list scan request can be used to show recent scan results without
            initiating a new scan.
    scanvalid threshold
            Set the maximum time the scan cache contents are considered
            valid; i.e. will be used without first triggering a scan opera‐
            tion to refresh the data.  The threshold parameter is specified
            in seconds and defaults to 60 seconds.  The minimum setting for
            threshold is 10 seconds.  One should take care setting this
            threshold; if it is set too low then attempts to roam to another
            access point may trigger unnecessary background scan operations.
    shortgi
            Enable use of Short Guard Interval when operating in 802.11n on
            an HT channel.  NB: this currently enables Short GI on both HT40
            and HT20 channels.  To disable Short GI use -shortgi.
    smps    Enable use of Static Spatial Multiplexing Power Save (SMPS) when
            operating in 802.11n.  A station operating with Static SMPS main‐
            tains only a single receive chain active (this can significantly
            reduce power consumption).  To disable SMPS use -smps.
    smpsdyn
            Enable use of Dynamic Spatial Multiplexing Power Save (SMPS) when
            operating in 802.11n.  A station operating with Dynamic SMPS
            maintains only a single receive chain active but switches to mul‐
            tiple receive chains when it receives an RTS frame (this can sig‐
            nificantly reduce power consumption).  Note that stations cannot
            distinguish between RTS/CTS intended to enable multiple receive
            chains and those used for other purposes.  To disable SMPS use
            -smps.
    ssid ssid
            Set the desired Service Set Identifier (aka network name).  The
            SSID is a string up to 32 characters in length and may be speci‐
            fied as either a normal string or in hexadecimal when preceded by
            ‘0x’.  Additionally, the SSID may be cleared by setting it to
            ‘-’.
    tdmaslot slot
            When operating with TDMA, use the specified slot configuration.
            The slot is a number between 0 and the maximum number of slots in
            the BSS.  Note that a station configured as slot 0 is a master
            and will broadcast beacon frames advertising the BSS; stations
            configured to use other slots will always scan to locate a master
            before they ever transmit.  By default tdmaslot is set to 1.
    tdmaslotcnt cnt
            When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS with cnt slots.  The slot
            count may be at most 8.  The current implementation is only
            tested with two stations (i.e. point to point applications).
            This setting is only meaningful when a station is configured as
            slot 0; other stations adopt this setting from the BSS they join.
            By default tdmaslotcnt is set to 2.
    tdmaslotlen len
            When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS such that each station has
            a slot len microseconds long.  The slot length must be at least
            150 microseconds (1/8 TU) and no more than 65 milliseconds.  Note
            that setting too small a slot length may result in poor channel
            bandwidth utilization due to factors such as timer granularity
            and guard time.  This setting is only meaningful when a station
            is configured as slot 0; other stations adopt this setting from
            the BSS they join.  By default tdmaslotlen is set to 10 millisec‐
            onds.
    tdmabintval intval
            When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS such that beacons are
            transmitted every intval superframes to synchronize the TDMA slot
            timing.  A superframe is defined as the number of slots times the
            slot length; e.g.  a BSS with two slots of 10 milliseconds has a
            20 millisecond superframe.  The beacon interval may not be zero.
            A lower setting of tdmabintval causes the timers to be resynchro‐
            nized more often; this can be help if significant timer drift is
            observed.  By default tdmabintval is set to 5.
    tsn     When operating as an access point with WPA/802.11i allow legacy
            stations to associate using static key WEP and open authentica‐
            tion.  To disallow legacy station use of WEP, use -tsn.
    txpower power
            Set the power used to transmit frames.  The power argument is
            specified in .5 dBm units.  Out of range values are truncated.
            Typically only a few discreet power settings are available and
            the driver will use the setting closest to the specified value.
            Not all adapters support changing the transmit power.
    ucastrate rate
            Set a fixed rate for transmitting unicast frames.  Rates are
            specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g. 5.5 for 5.5 Mb/s.
            This rate should be valid for the current operating conditions;
            if an invalid rate is specified drivers are free to chose an
            appropriate rate.
    wepmode mode
            Set the desired WEP mode.  Not all adapters support all modes.
            The set of valid modes is off, on, and mixed.  The mixed mode
            explicitly tells the adaptor to allow association with access
            points which allow both encrypted and unencrypted traffic.  On
            these adapters, on means that the access point must only allow
            encrypted connections.  On other adapters, on is generally
            another name for mixed.  Modes are case insensitive.
    weptxkey index
            Set the WEP key to be used for transmission.  This is the same as
            setting the default transmission key with deftxkey.
    wepkey key|index:key
            Set the selected WEP key.  If an index is not given, key 1 is
            set.  A WEP key will be either 5 or 13 characters (40 or 104
            bits) depending on the local network and the capabilities of the
            adaptor.  It may be specified either as a plain string or as a
            string of hexadecimal digits preceded by ‘0x’.  For maximum
            portability, hex keys are recommended; the mapping of text keys
            to WEP encryption is usually driver-specific.  In particular, the
            Windows drivers do this mapping differently to FreeBSD.  A key
            may be cleared by setting it to ‘-’.  If WEP is supported then
            there are at least four keys.  Some adapters support more than
            four keys.  If that is the case, then the first four keys (1-4)
            will be the standard temporary keys and any others will be adap‐
            tor specific keys such as permanent keys stored in NVRAM.
            Note that you must set a default transmit key with deftxkey for
            the system to know which key to use in encrypting outbound traf‐
            fic.
    wme     Enable Wireless Multimedia Extensions (WME) support, if avail‐
            able, for the specified interface.  WME is a subset of the IEEE
            802.11e standard to support the efficient communication of real‐
            time and multimedia data.  To disable WME support, use -wme.
            Another name for this parameter is wmm.
            The following parameters are meaningful only when WME support is
            in use.  Parameters are specified per-AC (Access Category) and
            split into those that are used by a station when acting as an
            access point and those for client stations in the BSS.  The lat‐
            ter are received from the access point and may not be changed (at
            the station).  The following Access Categories are recognized:
            AC_BE  (or BE) best effort delivery,
            AC_BK  (or BK) background traffic,
            AC_VI  (or VI) video traffic,
            AC_VO  (or VO) voice traffic.
            AC parameters are case-insensitive.  Traffic classification is
            done in the operating system using the vlan priority associated
            with data frames or the ToS (Type of Service) indication in IP-
            encapsulated frames.  If neither information is present, traffic
            is assigned to the Best Effort (BE) category.
            ack ac  Set the ACK policy for QoS transmissions by the local
                    station; this controls whether or not data frames trans‐
                    mitted by a station require an ACK response from the
                    receiving station.  To disable waiting for an ACK use
                    -ack.  This parameter is applied only to the local sta‐
                    tion.
            acm ac  Enable the Admission Control Mandatory (ACM) mechanism
                    for transmissions by the local station.  To disable the
                    ACM use -acm.  On stations in a BSS this parameter is
                    read-only and indicates the setting received from the
                    access point.  NB: ACM is not supported right now.
            aifs ac count
                    Set the Arbitration Inter Frame Spacing (AIFS) channel
                    access parameter to use for transmissions by the local
                    station.  On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-
                    only and indicates the setting received from the access
                    point.
            cwmin ac count
                    Set the CWmin channel access parameter to use for trans‐
                    missions by the local station.  On stations in a BSS this
                    parameter is read-only and indicates the setting received
                    from the access point.
            cwmax ac count
                    Set the CWmax channel access parameter to use for trans‐
                    missions by the local station.  On stations in a BSS this
                    parameter is read-only and indicates the setting received
                    from the access point.
            txoplimit ac limit
                    Set the Transmission Opportunity Limit channel access
                    parameter to use for transmissions by the local station.
                    This parameter defines an interval of time when a WME
                    station has the right to initiate transmissions onto the
                    wireless medium.  On stations in a BSS this parameter is
                    read-only and indicates the setting received from the
                    access point.
            bss:aifs ac count
                    Set the AIFS channel access parameter to send to stations
                    in a BSS.  This parameter is meaningful only when operat‐
                    ing in ap mode.
            bss:cwmin ac count
                    Set the CWmin channel access parameter to send to sta‐
                    tions in a BSS.  This parameter is meaningful only when
                    operating in ap mode.
            bss:cwmax ac count
                    Set the CWmax channel access parameter to send to sta‐
                    tions in a BSS.  This parameter is meaningful only when
                    operating in ap mode.
            bss:txoplimit ac limit
                    Set the TxOpLimit channel access parameter to send to
                    stations in a BSS.  This parameter is meaningful only
                    when operating in ap mode.
    wps     Enable Wireless Privacy Subscriber support.  Note that WPS sup‐
            port requires a WPS-capable supplicant.  To disable this function
            use -wps.
    The following parameters support an optional access control list feature
    available with some adapters when operating in ap mode; see wlan_acl(4).
    This facility allows an access point to accept/deny association requests
    based on the MAC address of the station.  Note that this feature does not
    significantly enhance security as MAC address spoofing is easy to do.
    mac:add address
            Add the specified MAC address to the database.  Depending on the
            policy setting association requests from the specified station
            will be allowed or denied.
    mac:allow
            Set the ACL policy to permit association only by stations regis‐
            tered in the database.
    mac:del address
            Delete the specified MAC address from the database.
    mac:deny
            Set the ACL policy to deny association only by stations regis‐
            tered in the database.
    mac:kick address
            Force the specified station to be deauthenticated.  This typi‐
            cally is done to block a station after updating the address data‐
            base.
    mac:open
            Set the ACL policy to allow all stations to associate.
    mac:flush
            Delete all entries in the database.
    mac:radius
            Set the ACL policy to permit association only by stations
            approved by a RADIUS server.  Note that this feature requires the
            hostapd(8) program be configured to do the right thing as it han‐
            dles the RADIUS processing (and marks stations as authorized).
    The following parameters are related to a wireless interface operating in
    mesh mode:
    meshid meshid
            Set the desired Mesh Identifier.  The Mesh ID is a string up to
            32 characters in length.  A mesh interface must have a Mesh Iden‐
            tifier specified to reach an operational state.
    meshttl ttl
            Set the desired ``time to live for mesh forwarded packets; this
            is the number of hops a packet may be forwarded before it is dis‐
            carded.  The default setting for meshttl is 31.
    meshpeering
            Enable or disable peering with neighbor mesh stations.  Stations
            must peer before any data packets can be exchanged.  By default
            meshpeering is enabled.
    meshforward
            Enable or disable forwarding packets by a mesh interface.  By
            default meshforward is enabled.
    meshmetric protocol
            Set the specified protocol as the link metric protocol used on a
            mesh network.  The default protocol is called AIRTIME.  The mesh
            interface will restart after changing this setting.
    meshpath protocol
            Set the specified protocol as the path selection protocol used on
            a mesh network.  The only available protocol at the moment is
            called HWMP (Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol).  The mesh interface
            will restart after changing this setting.
    hwmprootmode mode
            Stations on a mesh network can operate as ``root nodes.  Root
            nodes try to find paths to all mesh nodes and advertise them‐
            selves regularly.  When there is a root mesh node on a network,
            other mesh nodes can setup paths between themselves faster
            because they can use the root node to find the destination.  This
            path may not be the best, but on-demand routing will eventually
            find the best path.  The following modes are recognized:
            DISABLED   Disable root mode.
            NORMAL     Send broadcast path requests every two seconds.  Nodes
                       on the mesh without a path to this root mesh station
                       with try to discover a path to us.
            PROACTIVE  Send broadcast path requests every two seconds and
                       every node must reply with with a path reply even if
                       it already has a path to this root mesh station.
            RANN       Send broadcast root announcement (RANN) frames.  Nodes
                       on the mesh without a path to this root mesh station
                       with try to discover a path to us.
            By default hwmprootmode is set to DISABLED.
    hwmpmaxhops cnt
            Set the maximum number of hops allowed in an HMWP path to cnt.
            The default setting for hwmpmaxhops is 31.
    The following parameters are for compatibility with other systems:
    nwid ssid
            Another name for the ssid parameter.  Included for NetBSD compat‐
            ibility.
    stationname name
            Set the name of this station.  The station name is not part of
            the IEEE 802.11 protocol though some interfaces support it.  As
            such it only seems to be meaningful to identical or virtually
            identical equipment.  Setting the station name is identical in
            syntax to setting the SSID.  One can also use station for BSD/OS
            compatibility.
    wep     Another way of saying wepmode on.  Included for BSD/OS compati‐
            bility.
    -wep    Another way of saying wepmode off.  Included for BSD/OS compati‐
            bility.
    nwkey key
            Another way of saying: “wepmode on weptxkey 1 wepkey 1:key wepkey
            2:- wepkey 3:- wepkey 4:-”.  Included for NetBSD compatibility.
    nwkey n:k1,k2,k3,k4
            Another way of saying “wepmode on weptxkey n wepkey 1:k1 wepkey
            2:k2 wepkey 3:k3 wepkey 4:k4”.  Included for NetBSD compatibil‐
            ity.
    -nwkey  Another way of saying wepmode off.  Included for NetBSD compati‐
            bility.
    The following parameters are specific to bridge interfaces:
    addm interface
            Add the interface named by interface as a member of the bridge.
            The interface is put into promiscuous mode so that it can receive
            every packet sent on the network.
    deletem interface
            Remove the interface named by interface from the bridge.  Promis‐
            cuous mode is disabled on the interface when it is removed from
            the bridge.
    maxaddr size
            Set the size of the bridge address cache to size.  The default is
            2000 entries.
    timeout seconds
            Set the timeout of address cache entries to seconds seconds.  If
            seconds is zero, then address cache entries will not be expired.
            The default is 1200 seconds.
    addr    Display the addresses that have been learned by the bridge.
    static interface-name address
            Add a static entry into the address cache pointing to
            interface-name.  Static entries are never aged out of the cache
            or re-placed, even if the address is seen on a different inter‐
            face.
    deladdr address
            Delete address from the address cache.
    flush   Delete all dynamically-learned addresses from the address cache.
    flushall
            Delete all addresses, including static addresses, from the
            address cache.
    discover interface
            Mark an interface as a “discovering” interface.  When the bridge
            has no address cache entry (either dynamic or static) for the
            destination address of a packet, the bridge will forward the
            packet to all member interfaces marked as “discovering”.  This is
            the default for all interfaces added to a bridge.
    -discover interface
            Clear the “discovering” attribute on a member interface.  For
            packets without the “discovering” attribute, the only packets
            forwarded on the interface are broadcast or multicast packets and
            packets for which the destination address is known to be on the
            interface's segment.
    learn interface
            Mark an interface as a “learning” interface.  When a packet
            arrives on such an interface, the source address of the packet is
            entered into the address cache as being a destination address on
            the interface's segment.  This is the default for all interfaces
            added to a bridge.
    -learn interface
            Clear the “learning” attribute on a member interface.
    sticky interface
            Mark an interface as a “sticky” interface.  Dynamically learned
            address entries are treated at static once entered into the
            cache.  Sticky entries are never aged out of the cache or
            replaced, even if the address is seen on a different interface.
    -sticky interface
            Clear the “sticky” attribute on a member interface.
    private interface
            Mark an interface as a “private” interface.  A private interface
            does not forward any traffic to any other port that is also a
            private interface.
    -private interface
            Clear the “private” attribute on a member interface.
    span interface
            Add the interface named by interface as a span port on the
            bridge.  Span ports transmit a copy of every frame received by
            the bridge.  This is most useful for snooping a bridged network
            passively on another host connected to one of the span ports of
            the bridge.
    -span interface
            Delete the interface named by interface from the list of span
            ports of the bridge.
    stp interface
            Enable Spanning Tree protocol on interface.  The if_bridge(4)
            driver has support for the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree protocol
            (STP).  Spanning Tree is used to detect and remove loops in a
            network topology.
    -stp interface
            Disable Spanning Tree protocol on interface.  This is the default
            for all interfaces added to a bridge.
    edge interface
            Set interface as an edge port.  An edge port connects directly to
            end stations cannot create bridging loops in the network, this
            allows it to transition straight to forwarding.
    -edge interface
            Disable edge status on interface.
    autoedge interface
            Allow interface to automatically detect edge status.  This is the
            default for all interfaces added to a bridge.
    -autoedge interface
            Disable automatic edge status on interface.
    ptp interface
            Set the interface as a point to point link.  This is required for
            straight transitions to forwarding and should be enabled on a
            direct link to another RSTP capable switch.
    -ptp interface
            Disable point to point link status on interface.  This should be
            disabled for a half duplex link and for an interface connected to
            a shared network segment, like a hub or a wireless network.
    autoptp interface
            Automatically detect the point to point status on interface by
            checking the full duplex link status.  This is the default for
            interfaces added to the bridge.
    -autoptp interface
            Disable automatic point to point link detection on interface.
    maxage seconds
            Set the time that a Spanning Tree protocol configuration is
            valid.  The default is 20 seconds.  The minimum is 6 seconds and
            the maximum is 40 seconds.
    fwddelay seconds
            Set the time that must pass before an interface begins forwarding
            packets when Spanning Tree is enabled.  The default is 15 sec‐
            onds.  The minimum is 4 seconds and the maximum is 30 seconds.
    hellotime seconds
            Set the time between broadcasting of Spanning Tree protocol con‐
            figuration messages.  The hello time may only be changed when
            operating in legacy stp mode.  The default is 2 seconds.  The
            minimum is 1 second and the maximum is 2 seconds.
    priority value
            Set the bridge priority for Spanning Tree.  The default is 32768.
            The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 61440.
    proto value
            Set the Spanning Tree protocol.  The default is rstp.  The avail‐
            able options are stp and rstp.
    holdcnt value
            Set the transmit hold count for Spanning Tree.  This is the num‐
            ber of packets transmitted before being rate limited.  The
            default is 6.  The minimum is 1 and the maximum is 10.
    ifpriority interface value
            Set the Spanning Tree priority of interface to value.  The
            default is 128.  The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 240.
    ifpathcost interface value
            Set the Spanning Tree path cost of interface to value.  The
            default is calculated from the link speed.  To change a previ‐
            ously selected path cost back to automatic, set the cost to 0.
            The minimum is 1 and the maximum is 200000000.
    ifmaxaddr interface size
            Set the maximum number of hosts allowed from an interface, pack‐
            ets with unknown source addresses are dropped until an existing
            host cache entry expires or is removed.  Set to 0 to disable.
    The following parameters are specific to lagg interfaces:
    laggport interface
            Add the interface named by interface as a port of the aggregation
            interface.
    -laggport interface
            Remove the interface named by interface from the aggregation
            interface.
    laggproto proto
            Set the aggregation protocol.  The default is failover.  The
            available options are failover, fec, lacp, loadbalance,
            roundrobin and none.
    The following parameters are specific to IP tunnel interfaces, gif(4):
    tunnel src_addr dest_addr
            Configure the physical source and destination address for IP tun‐
            nel interfaces.  The arguments src_addr and dest_addr are inter‐
            preted as the outer source/destination for the encapsulating
            IPv4/IPv6 header.
    -tunnel
            Unconfigure the physical source and destination address for IP
            tunnel interfaces previously configured with tunnel.
    deletetunnel
            Another name for the -tunnel parameter.
    accept_rev_ethip_ver
            Set a flag to accept both correct EtherIP packets and ones with
            reversed version field.  Enabled by default.  This is for back‐
            ward compatibility with FreeBSD 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.0, and 7.1.
    -accept_rev_ethip_ver
            Clear a flag accept_rev_ethip_ver.
    send_rev_ethip_ver
            Set a flag to send EtherIP packets with reversed version field
            intentionally.  Disabled by default.  This is for backward com‐
            patibility with FreeBSD 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.0, and 7.1.
    -send_rev_ethip_ver
            Clear a flag send_rev_ethip_ver.
    The following parameters are specific to GRE tunnel interfaces, gre(4):
    grekey key
            Configure the GRE key to be used for outgoing packets.  Note that
            gre(4) will always accept GRE packets with invalid or absent
            keys. This command will result in a four byte MTU reduction on
            the interface.
    The following parameters are specific to pfsync(4) interfaces:
    maxupd n
            Set the maximum number of updates for a single state which can be
            collapsed into one.  This is an 8-bit number; the default value
            is 128.
    The following parameters are specific to vlan(4) interfaces:
    vlan vlan_tag
            Set the VLAN tag value to vlan_tag.  This value is a 16-bit num‐
            ber which is used to create an 802.1Q VLAN header for packets
            sent from the vlan(4) interface.  Note that vlan and vlandev must
            both be set at the same time.
    vlandev iface
            Associate the physical interface iface with a vlan(4) interface.
            Packets transmitted through the vlan(4) interface will be
            diverted to the specified physical interface iface with 802.1Q
            VLAN encapsulation.  Packets with 802.1Q encapsulation received
            by the parent interface with the correct VLAN tag will be
            diverted to the associated vlan(4) pseudo-interface.  The vlan(4)
            interface is assigned a copy of the parent interface's flags and
            the parent's ethernet address.  The vlandev and vlan must both be
            set at the same time.  If the vlan(4) interface already has a
            physical interface associated with it, this command will fail.
            To change the association to another physical interface, the
            existing association must be cleared first.
            Note: if the hardware tagging capability is set on the parent
            interface, the vlan(4) pseudo interface's behavior changes: the
            vlan(4) interface recognizes that the parent interface supports
            insertion and extraction of VLAN tags on its own (usually in
            firmware) and that it should pass packets to and from the parent
            unaltered.
    -vlandev [iface]
            If the driver is a vlan(4) pseudo device, disassociate the parent
            interface from it.  This breaks the link between the vlan(4)
            interface and its parent, clears its VLAN tag, flags and its link
            address and shuts the interface down.  The iface argument is use‐
            less and hence deprecated.
    The following parameters are specific to carp(4) interfaces:
    advbase seconds
            Specifies the base of the advertisement interval in seconds.  The
            acceptable values are 1 to 255.  The default value is 1.
    advskew interval
            Specifies the skew to add to the base advertisement interval to
            make one host advertise slower than another host.  It is speci‐
            fied in 1/256 of seconds.  The acceptable values are 1 to 254.
            The default value is 0.
    pass phrase
            Set the authentication key to phrase.
    vhid n  Set the virtual host ID.  This is a required setting.  Acceptable
            values are 1 to 255.
    state state
            Force the interface into state state.  Valid states are INIT,
            BACKUP, and MASTER. Note that manually setting the state to INIT
            is ignored by carp(4).  This state is set automatically when the
            underlying interface is down.
    The ifconfig utility displays the current configuration for a network
    interface when no optional parameters are supplied.  If a protocol family
    is specified, ifconfig will report only the details specific to that pro‐
    tocol family.
    If the -m flag is passed before an interface name, ifconfig will display
    the capability list and all of the supported media for the specified
    interface.  If -L flag is supplied, address lifetime is displayed for
    IPv6 addresses, as time offset string.
    Optionally, the -a flag may be used instead of an interface name.  This
    flag instructs ifconfig to display information about all interfaces in
    the system.  The -d flag limits this to interfaces that are down, and -u
    limits this to interfaces that are up.  When no arguments are given, -a
    is implied.
    The -l flag may be used to list all available interfaces on the system,
    with no other additional information.  Use of this flag is mutually
    exclusive with all other flags and commands, except for -d (only list
    interfaces that are down) and -u (only list interfaces that are up).
    The -v flag may be used to get more verbose status for an interface.
    The -C flag may be used to list all of the interface cloners available on
    the system, with no additional information.  Use of this flag is mutually
    exclusive with all other flags and commands.
    The -k flag causes keying information for the interface, if available, to
    be printed.  For example, the values of 802.11 WEP keys will be printed,
    if accessible to the current user.  This information is not printed by
    default, as it may be considered sensitive.
    If the network interface driver is not present in the kernel then
    ifconfig will attempt to load it.  The -n flag disables this behavior.
    Only the super-user may modify the configuration of a network interface.

[править] NOTES

    The media selection system is relatively new and only some drivers sup‐
    port it (or have need for it).

[править] EXAMPLES

    Assign the IPv4 address 192.0.2.10, with a network mask of 255.255.255.0,
    to the interface fxp0:
          # ifconfig fxp0 inet 192.0.2.10 netmask 255.255.255.0
    Add the IPv4 address 192.0.2.45, with the CIDR network prefix /28, to the
    interface ed0, using add as a synonym for the canonical form of the
    option alias:
          # ifconfig ed0 inet 192.0.2.45/28 add
    Remove the IPv4 address 192.0.2.45 from the interface ed0:
          # ifconfig ed0 inet 192.0.2.45 -alias
    Enable IPv6 functionality of the interface:
          # ifconfig em0 inet6 -ifdisabled
    Add the IPv6 address 2001:DB8:DBDB::123/48 to the interface em0:
          # ifconfig em0 inet6 2001:db8:bdbd::123 prefixlen 48 alias
    Note that lower case hexadecimal IPv6 addresses are acceptable.
    Remove the IPv6 address added in the above example, using the / character
    as shorthand for the network prefix, and using delete as a synonym for
    the canonical form of the option -alias:
          # ifconfig em0 inet6 2001:db8:bdbd::123/48 delete
    Configure the interface xl0, to use 100baseTX, full duplex Ethernet media
    options:
          # ifconfig xl0 media 100baseTX mediaopt full-duplex
    Label the em0 interface as an uplink:
          # ifconfig em0 description "Uplink to Gigabit Switch 2"
    Create the software network interface gif1:
          # ifconfig gif1 create
    Destroy the software network interface gif1:
          # ifconfig gif1 destroy
    Display available wireless networks using wlan0:
          # ifconfig wlan0 list scan

[править] DIAGNOSTICS

    Messages indicating the specified interface does not exist, the requested
    address is unknown, or the user is not privileged and tried to alter an
    interface's configuration.

[править] SEE ALSO

netstat(1), carp(4), gif(4), netintro(4), pfsync(4), polling(4), vlan(4), rc(8), routed(8), jail(8), sysctl(8)

[править] HISTORY

    The ifconfig utility appeared in 4.2BSD.

[править] BUGS

    Basic IPv6 node operation requires a link-local address on each interface
    configured for IPv6.  Normally, such an address is automatically config‐
    ured by the kernel on each interface added to the system or enabled; this
    behavior may be disabled by setting per-interface flag -auto_linklocal.
    The default value of this flag is 1 and can be disabled by using the
    sysctl MIB variable net.inet6.ip6.auto_linklocal.
    Do not configure IPv6 addresses with no link-local address by using
    ifconfig.  It can result in unexpected behaviors of the kernel.

FreeBSD 9.0 March 4, 2012 FreeBSD 9.0

Источник — «http://xgu.ru/wiki/man/orig/ifconfig»