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man/orig/portmaster

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PORTMASTER(8) FreeBSD System Manager's Manual PORTMASTER(8)

Содержание

[править] NAME

    portmaster -- manage your ports without external databases or languages

[править] SYNOPSIS

    Common Flags: [--force-config -CGHKgntvw -[B|b] -[f|i] -[D|d]]
    [[[--packages|-P]|[--packages-only|-PP]] | [--packages-build]]
    [--packages-if-newer] [--delete-build-only] [--always-fetch]
    [--local-packagedir=<path>] [--packages-local] [--delete-packages]
    [--no-confirm] [--no-term-title] [--no-index-fetch]
    [--index|--index-first|--index-only] [-m arguments for make]
    [-x glob pattern to exclude from building]
    portmaster [Common Flags] full name of port directory in /var/db/pkg
    portmaster [Common Flags] full path to /usr/ports/foo/bar
    portmaster [Common Flags] glob pattern of directories from /var/db/pkg
               PLEASE NOTE: Glob patterns now update every port that matches.
               This is a change from pre-version-2.3 behavior.
    portmaster [Common Flags] [--update-if-newer] Multiple full names or
               paths from /usr/ports or /var/db/pkg, and/or multiple globs
               from /var/db/pkg
    portmaster [Common Flags]
                . (Use in /usr/ports/foo/bar to build that port)
    portmaster [Common Flags] -a
    portmaster --show-work [-Gv] [-m args] <single port, as above>
    portmaster [Common Flags] -o <new port dir in /usr/ports> <installed
               port>
    portmaster [Common Flags] [-R] -r name/glob of port in /var/db/pkg (can
               be specified more than once)
    portmaster -l
    portmaster [--index-only [-t]] -L
    portmaster --list-origins
    portmaster [--force-config|-G] [-P|-PP] [-aftv] -F
    portmaster [-n|y] [-b] [-D|d] -e name/glob of a single port directory in
               /var/db/pkg
    portmaster [-n|y] [-b] [-D|d] -s
    portmaster [-n|y] [-t] --clean-distfiles
    portmaster [-n|y] [--index|-index-only] --clean-packages
    portmaster [-n|y] [--index|-index-only] [-v] --check-depends
    portmaster [-n|y] [-v] --check-port-dbdir
    portmaster -h|--help
    portmaster --version
               The "glob" patterns mentioned above are not regular expres-
               sions.  For example: "portmaster perl" would match every port
               directory name in /var/db/pkg that fits the pattern
               "/var/db/pkg/perl*".

[править] QUICK START GUIDE

    This manual contains a lot of valuable information about portmaster, and
    you should read the entire manual to give you a better idea about how it
    works and what choices are available to you.  However in the interests of
    getting you started quickly please see the EXAMPLES section at the end of
    the manual.

[править] DESCRIPTION

    The portmaster utility is a tool for updating your ports.  It does not
    use an external database to track what you have installed.  Rather it
    uses the existing ports infrastructure, including what is located in
    /var/db/pkg.  The focus of this tool is to keep the dependency tracking
    information for your ports up to date.  This allows you to safely update
    a specific port without having to update all of the ports "above" it.  In
    the rare case where you do need to recompile ports which depend on a port
    you are updating, the -r option exists to accomplish this.
    By default portmaster updates the port you specify on the command line.
    This will occur whether there is a new version for it or not.  It will
    first recurse through the port and all of its dependencies (if any) to
    handle any port OPTIONS via the 'make config' interface.  You will be
    presented with an OPTIONS dialog if you have never built the port before,
    or if the OPTIONS have changed.  You can force dialogs for all ports by
    using the --force-config option.
    While recursing through dependencies, if you are not using any of the
    --packages* options, a 'make checksum' process will be launched in the
    background to either verify that the correct distfiles are available or
    start downloading the new ones.  If you stop portmaster with ^C, an
    attempt will be made to kill off the child processes started for this
    purpose.
    While checking dependencies if a port has CONFLICTS set they will be com-
    pared to your installed ports and if you already have an alternate ver-
    sion of the dependency that is required by the port you are building it
    will be used in place of the default dependency.
    When the config and dependency checking phase is over the user will be
    presented with a list of ports that will be installed and/or upgraded,
    and asked to approve before proceeding.  This behavior can be suppressed
    with the --no-confirm option.
    If the dependency check does not find a port that needs updating that
    step will be skipped prior to building the port(s) specified on the com-
    mand line.  In addition to this optimization, information about up-to-
    date dependencies, choices made on which ports to build for interactive
    mode, and ports already visited for 'make config' are all cached to
    enhance performance and prevent duplicated efforts.
    While recursing through the dependencies, if a port is marked IS_INTERAC-
    TIVE this will be flagged.  In the absence of this notification, under
    normal circumstances the only user interaction required after the port
    starts building is to answer questions about the deletion of stale dist-
    files.  This can be eliminated with the -d or -D options.
    There are a number of --packages* options available to save the time that
    would normally be spent building the port(s).  Users interested in a rea-
    sonable balance between speed of installation and maximum performance
    should consider the --packages-build option, perhaps combined with the
    --delete-build-only option.
    If there is no -B option specified when updating an existing port, a
    backup package will be created before pkg_delete(1) is called.  If you
    are using the -b option, these packages can be found in a directory
    called "portmaster-backup" in the directory specified by the PACKAGES
    environment variable, usually /usr/ports/packages.  If there is no -b
    option specified, the backup package will be deleted once the new version
    of the port is successfully installed.  If the installation fails for
    whatever reason, a helpful message will be printed, along with instruc-
    tions on where to find the backup package.
    After the port is built, if the -w option is being used, all shared
    libraries installed by the old port (if any) will be saved to
    /usr/local/lib/compat/pkg.  After installation if there are any new files
    with the same names as those in /usr/local/lib/compat/pkg the old files
    will be deleted, and ldconfig(8) will be run via /etc/rc.d/ldconfig.
    After the new port is built, but before it is installed the runtime
    dependencies will be checked to make sure they are up to date.  If the -g
    option is used a package will be created for the new (or newly installed)
    version.
    When installing a port or using the --check-depends option, if there are
    other ports that depend on this port the dependent ports +CONTENTS
    file(s), and the +REQUIRED_BY file for the new port will be updated.
    At the conclusion of a successful installation, any pkg-message files
    that were installed, and a summary of the work performed will be dis-
    played.  If the --delete-build-only option is in use, those packages that
    were installed during the current run of portmaster AND were only ever
    listed as build dependencies during this run will be deleted.
    If something goes wrong during the process (e.g., a port build fails, a
    port is marked BROKEN) portmaster will report any work done successfully
    as described above, then exit.
    The question is often asked, ``Why is it not possible to proceed with the
    ports that do not have errors? The answer is that (unfortunately)
    portmaster is not omniscient, and cannot guess what resolution the user
    would like to have for this problem.  Manual intervention is therefore
    required.

[править] OPTIONS

    The options are as follows:
    Common Flags:
    --force-config
        run 'make config' for all ports (overrides -G)
    -C  prevents 'make clean' from being run before building
    -G  prevents 'make config'
    -H  hide details of the port build and install in a log file
    -K  prevents 'make clean' from being run after building
    -B  prevents creation of the backup package for the installed port
    -b  create and keep a backup package of an installed port
    -g  create a package of the new port
    -n  run through all steps, but do not make or install any ports
    -t  recurse dependencies thoroughly, using all-depends-list.  RECOMMENDED
        FOR USE ONLY WHEN NEEDED, NOT ROUTINELY. When applied to the
        --clean-distfiles option it allows a distfile to be kept if it
        matches any up to date port, not just the ones that are installed.
    -v  verbose output
    -w  save old shared libraries before deinstall
    [-R] -f
        always rebuild ports (overrides -i)
    -i  interactive update mode -- ask whether to rebuild ports
    -D  no cleaning of distfiles
    -d  always clean distfiles
    -m arguments for make
        any arguments to supply to make(1)
    -x  avoid building or updating ports that match this pattern.  Can be
        specified more than once.  If a port is not already installed the
        exclude pattern will be run against the directory name from
        /usr/ports.
    --no-confirm
        do not ask the user to confirm the list of ports to be installed
        and/or updated before proceeding
    --no-term-title
        do not update the xterm title bar
    --no-index-fetch
        skip fetching the INDEX file
    --index
        use INDEX-[7-9] exclusively to check if a port is up to date
    --index-first
        use the INDEX for status, but double-check with the port
    --index-only
        do not try to use /usr/ports.  For updating ports when no /usr/ports
        directory is present the -PP|--packages-only option is required.  See
        the ENVIRONMENT section below for additional requirements.
    --delete-build-only
        delete ports that are build-only dependencies after a successful run,
        only if installed this run
    --update-if-newer
        (only for multiple ports listed on the command line) do not
        rebuild/reinstall if the installed version is up to date
    -P|--packages
        use packages, but build port if not available
    -PP|--packages-only
        fail if no package is available.  The -PP option must stand alone on
        the command line.  In other words, you cannot do -PPav (for example).
    --packages-build
        use packages for all build dependencies
    --packages-if-newer
        use package if newer than installed even if the package is not the
        latest according to the ports tree
    --always-fetch
        fetch package even if it already exists locally
    --local-packagedir=<path>
        where local packages can be found, will fall back to fetching if no
        local version exists.  This option should point to the full path of a
        directory structure created in the same way that 'make package' (or
        the portmaster -g option) creates it.  I.e., the package files are
        contained in <path>/All, there are LATEST_LINK symlinks in the
        <path>/Latest directory, and symlinks to the packages in <path>/All
        in the category subdirectories, such as <path>/devel,
        <path>/ports-mgmt, etc.
    --packages-local
        use packages from --local-packagedir only
    --delete-packages
        after installing from a package, delete it
    Features:
    -a  check all ports, update as necessary
    --show-work
        show what dependent ports are, and are not installed (implies -t).
    -o <new port dir in /usr/ports> <installed port>
        replace the installed port with a port from a different origin
    [-R] -r name/glob of port directory in /var/db/pkg
        rebuild the specified port, and all ports that depend on it.  The
        list of dependent ports is built according to origin (i.e.,
        category/portname) not by the version number of the installed port.
        So if you do portmaster -r fooport-1.23 and it is necessary to
        restart using -R but the newly installed port is now fooport-1.24 you
        can do portmaster -R -r fooport-1.24 and it should pick up where you
        left off.  The -r option can be specified more than once.
    -R  used with the -r or -f options to skip ports updated on a previous
        run.  When used with -r it will also prevent the rebuild of the par-
        ent port if it, and all of its dependencies are up to date.
    -l  list all installed ports by category
    -L  list all installed ports by category, and search for updates
    --list-origins
        list directories from /usr/ports for root and leaf ports.  This list
        is suitable for feeding to portmaster either on another machine or
        for reinstalling all ports.  See EXAMPLES below.
    [--force-config|-G] [-aftv] -F
        fetch distfiles only
    -n  answer no to all user prompts for the features below
    -y  answer yes to all user prompts for the features below
    [-n|y] [-b] [-D|d] -e name/glob of a single port directory in /var/db/pkg
        expunge a port using pkg_delete(1), and optionally remove all dist-
        files.  Calls -s after it is done expunging in case removing the port
        causes a dependency to no longer be necessary.
    [-n|y] [-b] [-D|d] -s
        clean out stale ports that used to be depended on
    [-t] [-n] --clean-distfiles
        recurse through the installed ports to get a list of distinfo files,
        then recurse through all files in /usr/ports/distfiles to make sure
        that they are still associated with an installed port.  If not, offer
        to delete the stale file.  With the -t option a distfile is consid-
        ered valid if it is in use by any port, not just those installed.
    [-t]
        -y --clean-distfiles does the same as above, but deletes all files
        without prompting.
    [--index|--index-only] [-n] --clean-packages
        offer to delete stale packages.  The --index-only option is required
        if no ports tree is available.
    [--index|--index-only]
        -y --clean-packages does the same as above, but deletes all out of
        date files without prompting.
    [-n|y] [-v] --check-depends
        cross-check and update dependency information for all ports
    [-n|y] [-v] --check-port-dbdir
        check for stale entries in /var/db/ports
    -h|--help
        display help message
    --version
        display the version number

[править] ENVIRONMENT

    The directory pointed to by the PACKAGES variable (by default
    /usr/ports/packages) will be used to store new and backup packages.  When
    using 'make package' for the -g option, the ports infrastructure will
    store packages in ${PACKAGES}/All, aka PKGREPOSITORY.  When using the -b
    option, portmaster stores its backup packages in
    ${PACKAGES}/portmaster-backup so that you can create both a backup pack-
    age and a package of the newly installed port even if they have the same
    version.
    When using the --packages* options the package files will be downloaded
    to ${PACKAGES}/portmaster-download.  portmaster will respect the
    PACKAGESITE and PACKAGEROOT (by default http://ftp.freebsd.org) vari-
    ables.  portmaster attempts to use both of these variables in the same
    way that pkg_add(1) does.
    The UPGRADE_TOOL variable is set to "portmaster", and the UPGRADE_PORT
    and UPGRADE_PORT_VER variables are set to the full package name string
    and version of the existing package being replaced, if any.
    When using the --index-only option the PACKAGES variable must be set to a
    directory where the superuser has write permissions.  Other useful vari-
    ables include:
    MASTER_SITE_INDEX       (default http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/)
    FETCHINDEX              (default fetch -am -o)
    INDEXDIR                (default $PORTSDIR, or $TMPDIR for --index-only)
    INDEXFILE               (default auto per FreeBSD version)
    If you use non-standard OPTIONS settings for package building and wish to
    use the --index-only option without a ports tree you must generate your
    own INDEX file so that the dependencies match.
    If you wish to customize your build environment on a per-port basis you
    might want to take a look at /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portconf
    To log actions taken by portmaster along with a date/time stamp you can
    define PM_LOG in your rc file with the full path of the file you would
    like to log to.  If running portmaster with sudo(8) (see below) then you
    should make sure that the file is writable by the unprivileged user.
    By default portmaster creates backup packages of installed ports before
    it runs pkg_delete(1) during an update.  If that package creation fails
    it is treated as a serious error and the user is prompted.  However for
    scripted use of portmaster this can be a problem.  In situations where
    the user is ABSOLUTELY SURE that lack of a backup package should not be a
    fatal error PM_IGNORE_FAILED_BACKUP_PACKAGE can be defined to any value
    in the rc file.
    For those who wish to be sure that specific ports are always compiled
    instead of being installed from packages the PT_NO_INSTALL_PACKAGE vari-
    able can be defined in the make(1) environment, perhaps in
    /usr/local/etc/ports.conf if using /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portconf, or in
    /etc/make.conf.  This setting is not compatible with the
    -PP/--packages-only option.

[править] FILES

    /usr/local/etc/portmaster.rc
    $HOME/.portmasterrc
          Optional system and user configuration files.  The variables set in
          the script's getopts routine can be specified in these files to
          enable those options.  These files will be read by the parent
          portmaster process, and all variables in them will be exported.  If
          a portmaster.rc file is placed in the same directory as the
          portmaster script itself, it will be read as described above.
    /var/db/pkg/*/+IGNOREME
          If this file exists for a port that is already installed, several
          things will happen:
          1. The port will be ignored for all purposes.
              This includes dependency updates even if there is no directory
              for the port in /usr/ports and there is no entry for it in
              /usr/ports/MOVED.  If the -v option is used, the fact that the
              port is being ignored will be mentioned.
          2. If using the
              -L option, and a new version exists, the existence of the
              +IGNOREME file will be mentioned.
          3. If you do a regular update of the port, or if the
              -a option is being used you will be asked if you want to update
              the port anyway.
    /var/db/pkg/*/PM_UPGRADE_DONE_FLAG
          Indicates to a subsequent -a, -f, or -r run which includes the -R
          option that a port has already been rebuilt, so it can be safely
          ignored if it is up to date.
    /tmp/port_log-*
          If the -H option is used, and the installation or upgrade is not
          successful, the results of the build and install will be saved in
          this file.  Substitute the value of TMPDIR in your environment as
          appropriate.

[править] EXIT STATUS

    The portmaster utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

[править] ADVANCED FEATURE: SU_CMD

    The ports infrastructure has limited support for performing various oper-
    ations as an unprivileged user.  It does this by defining SU_CMD, which
    is typically su(1).  In order to support complete management of your
    ports as an unprivileged user, escalating to "root" privileges only when
    necessary, portmaster can use sudo(1) to handle the escalated privileges.
    To accomplish this you must have the following directories configured so
    that the unprivileged user can access them:
    1. WRKDIRPREFIX - This is usually set to /usr/ports/category/port/work,
        however it is suggested that you configure another directory outside
        your ports tree for access by the unprivileged user, and assign this
        variable to that value in your /etc/make.conf.
    2. DISTDIR - This is usually set to /usr/ports/distfiles.
        This directory can be safely set up for access by the unprivileged
        user, or a new directory can be specified as above.
    3. TMPDIR - Usually /tmp,
        but can also be set to another directory in your shell environment if
        desired.
    It is further assumed that the following directories will be owned by
    root:
    /var/db/pkg
    /var/db/ports
    LOCALBASE - Usually /usr/local
    PACKAGES - Usually /usr/ports/packages
    PKGREPOSITORY - Usually ${PACKAGES}/All
    You will then need to install and configure sudo(1).  This can easily be
    done with /usr/ports/security/sudo.  Then you will need to define
    PM_SU_CMD in your /etc/portmaster.rc file, or your $HOME/.portmasterrc
    file.  For example:
          PM_SU_CMD=/usr/local/bin/sudo
    You can optionally define the PM_SU_VERBOSE option as well to notify you
    each time portmaster uses the PM_SU_CMD.  This is particularly useful if
    you are experimenting with a tool other than sudo(1) to handle the privi-
    lege escalation, although at this time sudo(1) is the only supported
    option.
    PLEASE NOTE: You cannot upgrade the sudo(1) port itself using this
    method.

[править] EXAMPLES

    The following are examples of typical usage of the portmaster command:
    Update one port:
          portmaster fooport-1.23 or
          portmaster fooport or
          portmaster foo/fooport
    Use a package if available:
          portmaster --packages fooport-1.23
    Update multiple ports:
          portmaster fooport-1.23 barport baz/blahport
    Build a port locally but use packages for build dependencies, then delete
    the build dependencies when finished:
          portmaster --packages-build --delete-build-only fooport-1.23
    Update a system using only packages that are available locally:
          portmaster -PP --local-packagedir=<path> -a
    Update all ports that need updating:
          portmaster -a
    Update all ports that need updating, and delete stale distfiles after the
    update is done:
          1. portmaster -aD
          2. portmaster --clean-distfiles
    More complex tasks (please see the details for these options above):
          portmaster -r fooport-1.23
          portmaster -r fooport-1.23 -r barport-2.34
          portmaster -o emulators/linux_base-fc4 linux_base-8-8.0_15
          portmaster -a -x gstreamer -x linux
    Print only the ports that have available updates.  This can be used as an
    alias in your shell.  Be sure to fix the line wrapping appropriately.
          portmaster -L |
          egrep -B1 '(ew|ort) version|Aborting|installed|dependencies|
          IGNORE|marked|Reason:|MOVED|deleted|exist|update' | grep -v '^--'
    Using portmaster to do a complete reinstallation of all your ports:
          1. portmaster --list-origins > ~/installed-port-list
          2. Update your ports tree
          3. portmaster -ty --clean-distfiles
          4. portmaster --check-port-dbdir
          5. portmaster -Faf
          6. pkg_delete -a
          7. rm -rf /usr/local/lib/compat/pkg
          8. Back up any files in /usr/local you wish to save,
             such as configuration files in /usr/local/etc
          9. Manually check /usr/local and /var/db/pkg
             to make sure that they are really empty
          10. Re-install portmaster
          11. portmaster `cat ~/installed-port-list`
    You probably want to use the -D option for the installation and then run
    --clean-distfiles [-y] again when you are done.  You might also want to
    consider using the --force-config option when installing the new ports.
    Alternatively you could use portmaster -a -f -D to do an ``in place
    update of your ports.  If that process is interrupted for any reason you
    can use portmaster -a -f -D -R to avoid rebuilding ports already rebuilt
    on previous runs.  However the first method (delete everything and rein-
    stall) is preferred.

[править] SEE ALSO

make, pkg_add, pkg_delete, su, ports, ldconfig, sudo

[править] AUTHORS

    This manual page was written by Doug Barton <dougb@FreeBSD.org>.

FreeBSD 9.0 December 12, 2011 FreeBSD 9.0

Источник — «http://xgu.ru/wiki/man/orig/portmaster»